All posts by admin

Janet’s Miracle Motor Adventure with the Yanomami

My time in the Indian villages in the Amazon was an amazing experience. With my previous trips and having read everything about the Amazon that I could get my hands on, my expectations were high, and I was not disappointed!

When I asked my guide, Juan Carlos what I could bring for the Yanomami in Venezuela, he said the usual things such as medicine, fish hooks and wire, red cloth for traditional garments, and candy, pencils, and paper for the children, all of which I took with me. He also said that I could donate to their motor fund.

The Yanomami had been putting as much money as possible into a village fund to buy a motor for their bongo boat.They lived too far away from medical attention to paddle in an emergency event, so the motor was to save their lives. The adult life expectancy is only 45 years, and most children don’t live past infancy because of simple problems.

With inflation problems in Venezuela, the village was getting further away from their goal instead of closer.So I promised I would do everything I could to help.After making some phone calls, I realized just how expensive a 40hp motor was, even in the United States.One of the calls I made was to the Mercury Company, and I told them the situation and sent pictures.I also asked them to donate a 40hp motor and help us get it to Puerto Ayacucho, a little jungle outpost town in the Amazon.

After three weeks of discussions, Mercury decided to help by donating a motor already on the way to Venezuela. With help from some friends, we got a motor into the Amazon, but not before what I think was a series of miracles.

When the motor got to Venezuela, it got stuck in Caracas customs, and was not released in time to fly with us to Puerto Ayacucho.A call went out to the few Mercury dealers in Venezuela, and there was one new 55 hp motor in the central region of the country.It turns out, the owner of the company was an old friend of our guide, Juan Carlos.He was not only happy to swap the motors, he took the lead and helped transport the 5 foot, 200 pound motor to Puerto Ayacucho himself. With Venezuela’s transportation system, the first miracle is that everyone and the motor arrived in Puerto Ayacucho at the same time. We were feeling good, but we could only hope that the Yanomami’s boat would hold the larger motor.

Then, when we got to Puerto Ayacucho, the motor had no bill-of-sale because it was donated. As a result, the National Guard would not let us have it!After much fruitless arguing, Juan Carlos asked to talk to the highest person in the National Guard there. Again, for the second miracle, this person just happened to be someone Juan Carlos knew.Out of four million people in the country, we were still running into friends of Juan Carlos, even way out in this little jungle outpost 300 miles from Caracas.

We finally flew out in a small plane toward this jungle mission in Tama Tama.The boat motor was so heavy we had to rent another small plane just to carry it.As we approached the mission, Juan Carlos radioed ahead to let them know we were arriving with the motor.They radioed back that the village not only did not have a motor, now they didn’t even have a boat. At this point, I found the situation hysterically funny.After regaining my composure, I told Juan Carlos that I could not believe we had gone through the various problems and road blocks to get a motor for the Indians who did not even have a boat!Juan Carlos’s only response was “Have faith.”We landed at the mission and headed downstream in a best canadian casino large bongo boat owned by a Ye’kuana Indian named Francisco. When we got to the village, I waited in the boat while Juan Carlos went to talk to the village leaders.He had instructed us not to show cameras, to walk and talk slowly, not to make big gestures, or come on too friendly, which is disrespectful.

We waited, and waited, and waited.Finally Juan Carlos returned with all the Yanomami men dressed in ceremonial attire.They were so overwhelmed by our generosity with the motor that they had wanted to give us a formal welcome. They brought us into the village, performed dances, made speeches, and told us we could take videos and pictures at will, which is very rare.We also found out (for the third miracle) that the previous week had been a reunion and several other Yanomami tribes had visited.Only two days earlier, they had traded for a boat big enough for most of the village that required a 55 hp motor!

Our time with the Yanomami was wonderful.They showed us their ceremonies, ways of making baskets, carving wooded arrows and tips, starting a fire with sticks, fishing (the women catch the fish by hand and break the neck with their teeth,) and gardening, etc.They were truly delightful and made us feel like a part of their tribe.

Indigenous Groups Hoaxed by Ruthless Conman

December 1995

Several hundred Venezuelan Indians were left stranded in Caracas this weekend after conman, Guillermo
Olivares, lured them there with false promises of an indigenous crafts fair.

The 368 indians, from various communities in the southern state of Amazonas, arrived in Caracas Friday night after travelling nearly 1,000 kilometres by bus and truck hoping to sell their craftwork in the city.

The craft fair was to occur between the 15th and 20th of Transparent Inflatable Commercial Tent For Sale this month, in the run up to Christmas, supposedly under the control of the State National Culture Council in the central Sabana Grande zone of the city.

When they arrived, no one was expecting them. There was no craft fair, nor was there anyone to pay the angry drivers who had brought them there.

They were abandoned in the centre of a violent city where indigenous people are prohibited from selling their goods in the street.

Luckily for them the central area of the city is also the site of the public central university, which took in the travellers.

”It was then that the role of conman Guillermo Olivares, a false cultural promotor in Amazonas, was discovered. He tricked the people with the help of an Indian called Ricardo Barrera,” University security chief, Lenin Molina told IPS.

”For two or three months (Olivares) promoted the fair in Amazonas, while he negotiated the permits in Caracas. He didn’t get these, and instead of stopping the process he let it continue in the hopes of charging a percentage of everything sold,” he added.

The people ”arrived thinking they had board and lodging, so even women with small babies came, in a procession which shows the inexistence of mechanisms to detect in time and help our indian brothers in their tasks and concerns,” he added.

The University, the Culture Council, Parliament and the Governor of Amazonas, Bernabe Gutierrez worked together on Saturday to feed the people and arrange their journey home.

But the humilliation was not over. It was decided to house the Indians in the former prison of San Carlos, a horrific building awaiting conversion into a museum.

When the first bus load of indians arrived, the soldiers refused to accept them, dubbing them ”subversives,” ordering
them to clean up the building, said group leader Rafael Estrada.

The group was finally sent home on Sunday night, crossing the Orinoco on their journey south around Monday lunch time.

Meanwhile, the authorities launched an investigation to find out how Olivares was able to promote the fake fair, and how he was able to get official support for this.

The indigenous peoples of Amazonas are especially susceptible to this sort of abuse. They live in a wild 175,000 square
kilometre region where 40,000 of the 90,000 inhabitants come from 18 different tribal groups, and there is no central national entity working for their cause.

The people of Amazonas were recently subjected to a system of new internal state divisions which bore no relation to the layout of their ancestral lands. Their complaints fell on deaf ears.

Also, two years ago 16 Yanomami people (from a group of 8,000) were killed by gold miners from neighbouring Brazil. The authorities took so long deciding which country the events occurred in, that little was actually done to resolve the case.

“OPERATION FREE JUNGLE” FAILS THE YANOMAMI

It’s been almost a year since President Collor ordered the dynamiting of illegal airstrips in the Yanomami territory but “Operation Free Jungle” has produced nothing but additional sorrow for the Yanomami and proved the government’s incompetence in protecting their constitutional rights.

The governor of Roraima, Ottomar de Souza Pinto, has repeatedly impeded the Federal Police’s work to rid the area of garimpeiros. He has ordered the civil and military police forces to obstruct the closing of airstrips, he paid the bail of 16 garimpeiros being held in a Roraima prison and he told penitentiary officials in Roraima not to detain any
more garimpeiros brought by federal police, who number 20 against the 1300 armed military and civil police who are controlled by the state government. Less than half of the 120 illegal airstrips in the Yanomami area have been dynamited and most of those have been reoccupied by the garimpeiros.

The governor’s actions, said Attorney-General Aristides Junqueira, are obstructing efforts by Federal Police to comply with a federal court order that requires the removal of Transparent Inflatable Commercial Tent For Sale garimpeiros from the Yanomami territory. That is why last week Junqueira requested the Regional Federal Court to intervene in the matter.

In the meantime, he has decided to suspend “Operation Free Jungle”. Federal Police and FUNAI officials said they lack the necessary funds to continue dynamiting as well as funds to pay personnel to guard the airstrips already dynamited. The Attorney-General asked Economy Minister Zelia Cardoso de Mello for the funds to continue the operation, but they have not yet been released.

CAMPAIGN FOR GARIMPO HURTS YANOMAMI CAUSE

After Roraima turned from federal territory to state in 1990 it was entitled to elect eight federal deputies and three senators. Those who were elected to these offices were in favor of maintaining the exploration of minerals in Roraima. Their numbers and their significant political strength call for careful watch from those who fight for the survival of the Yanomami. Federal and state deputies in the state of Roraima are following Governor Ottomar de Souza’s lead and lobbying for the maintenance of the garimpeiro reserves. They are trying to place garimpo supporters in key governmental offices that deal with indigenous issues.

One such candidate is former FUNAI anthropologist Celio Horst. Pro-garimpo representatives in Roraima and Brasilia are trying to have him chosen for the FUNAI administrative post in Boa Vista. In the late 1970s Horst was a major proponent of the division of the Yanomami territory into 19 separate areas or “islands”. He is also facing charges for the 1988 rape and torture of a Wapishina Indian girl during a FUNAI trip in Roraima.

The appointment of Tarcisio Ximenes Prado as administrator of the Funai regional office for the Northern and Western Amazon areas (which includes Roraima) was in line with Justice Minister Jarbas Passarinho’s declared policy of maintaining Funai within his Ministry and strengthening its control over all aspects of the indigenous question. Ximenes is linked to Sebastiao Amancio, “Operation Free Jungle” coordinator and well-known opponent of the presence of NGOs in the Yanomami area.

Garimpeiro leader Jose Altino Machado, who faces charges of illegally invading the Surucucus area of Yanomami territory, is also receiving considerable media attention. In an article that ran on March 29 in Brazil’s largest daily newspaper “Folha de S. Paulo”, he made inflammatory and erroneous statements about the Yanomami territory which were published on almost an entire page of the “Folha”. “Why can’t the Indians die? They have to die, like all of us,” Machado said in the article.

YANOMAMI HEALTH

“Operation Free Jungle” is not the only governmental program that is failing in the Yanomami area. Health treatment for ailing Indians is still precarious. CCPY continues to give the most consistent health care in the area, although it is still insufficient for all of the Yanomami’s needs. CCPY currently sponsors the work of two nurses, a
doctor, a linguist and an anthropologist in the Demini area and two doctors in Surucucus. Since February CCPY and the Ministry of Health have also been jointly sponsoring a doctor in the Surucucus region, who has recently moved to Auaris to deal with the critical health situation there. Anthropologist Alcida Ramos, professionals from Mdecins du Monde (MDM) and a medical doctor from Brasilia, Dr Ivone Menegola, are dealing with the emergency in Auaris.

An emergency health situation in the Auaris region (in the northernmost part of Yanomami territory) this month demonstrated how sporadic medical care will not solve the health problems in the Yanomami area and that it is crucial to implement the permanent Yanomami Health Project. In the absence of any scheme of comprehensive permanent health coverage throughout the whole Yanomami area, emergencies such as that in Auaris often run out of control before medical help arrives. Villages located far from mission stations or Funai posts do not receive doctors’ visits
on a regular basis, with the result that epidemics can reach tragic proportions in the remoter areas before news of the outbreak reaches a post. An example of this is the community of Karimani, where many of the Auaris region’s 160 confirmed cases of malaria (out of a total population of less than 400) have occurred; a Yanomami woman who had lost her child was transferred to Boa Vista in a malarial semi-coma, and there are reports of children suffering from grave malnutrition with their whole families affected by malaria and unable to gather food. 90% of the 200 Yanomami currently receiving medical attention in the Auaris area have been diagnosed as suffering from malnutrition.

Despite problems such as the lacking of a helicopter small enough to land in the village, the release of emergency funds equivalent to $20,000 by the Health Ministry and contributions from CCPY and other NGOs allowed emergency work to get under way. It is clear, however, that only permanent monitoring under a comprehensive health plan will put an end to the suffering of the people of Karimani and hundreds of similar villages.

The new date set by the Health Ministry for the Permanent Health Plan is supposed to come into effect this month, though money is in critically short supply as the details of the final budget application have yet to be concluded. In addition, President Collor still has to sign a Decree sanctioning the creation of the body responsible for the project, the Health Ministry’s National Health Foundation (FNS).

DAVI TRAVELS TO THE UNITED STATES

Beginning April 10 Davi Kopenawa Yanomami travels to the United States accompanied by CCPY Coordinator Claudia Andujar. They will meet with officials at the United Nations, the Organization of American States and the World Bank as well as American Congressmen and the Brazilian Ambassador in Washington. They will participate in conferences at New York and Yale universities. Davi has also been invited to speak in Pittsburgh to supporters of the Catholic Consolata mission, a religious order that maintains a mission house in the Yanomami area.

The trip is sponsored by Survival International, the Museum of the American Indian of the Smithsonian Institute and other bodies linked to environmental and indigenous matters.”

I am the child of the jungle

I am the child of the jungle

proud of those who are called Yekuana.

Because Transparent Inflatable Commercial Tent For Sale we own

of large rivers

and the rapids

Orinoco

our parents

for many centuries

sail

in bold curiaras

cut in the trunk of a tree

slow opens

to measure patient and stubborn

of iron axes

and the raging fire.

Now listen

I’ll tell

the story of our life

Our people

is an immense home

Round

and

upright in the middle of the world

with the roof

stretched to the sky.

Its wooden frame

high wisely

teaches us

from father to son

the world of our ancestors.

The center pole

is the support of the firmament.

And the two beams

slender and strong

supporting the roof

the call

the Milky Way

illuminating the night sky.

When I Grow Up

proud

I will meet with my friends

in the central area

of our common dwelling

where our mothers and sisters

silent

We serve meals and drinks because that space

is ours alone.

We are strong

but

sometimes

one of us

sick.

Then the wise man

started hard

in solitude and fasting

sits on his bench-tiger

and with their songs

maraca and sacred

invokes Wanadi

which created the universe

where the Yekuana lived alone.

At the Roundhouse

man back against the center post

-The long stairway that leads to heaven-

finally cure evil

stone sucking

that sick

We

the long nights

rocked

by the gentle swaying

of our hammocks.

Silently

listen

our parents and our grandparents

that have

stories of yesteryear.

At the beginning of time

when our only food

land was

Kushu monkey

learned that the inhabitants of heaven

cultivated cassava plant.

Knowing as we nagged

hunger

flew skyward supreme

he discovered the fertile plain

Stole quietly

the most beautiful plants of cassava

hid

under his fingernails black

and crossed the lower heavens

to earth

and planted the root celeste

From that day

satiate us

with generous fruit

gives us that Tree of Life

they can only sow

our mothers

who carry them

life of our tribe.

Long ago

there

two huge eagles

Dinoshi calls

devouring all living on our land.

Then the water snake Kurene

went astute and courageous

because

in earnest

our fear was very large.

Wielding his blowgun

smeared darts with curare

I bought this deadly poison

Piaroa our neighbors.

When he saw the Dinoshi

swiftly fired their arrows

eagles and crossed from side to side.

In his flight from death

bloodied the sky

raptors left

a groove feathers

that were

adrift in the clouds.

The feathered entourage landed at last

in our land and became Kurata

With this same timber

manufacture since then

the fine blowguns

with which we approach

our unsuspecting prey

who sing and cluck

at dawn.

So have

those who know

When our parents return

of distant shops

or

when our people ends

construction

Round House

celebrate our joy

dancing – singing – drinking

two – three – four days

steadily

to empty

the curiaras

our mothers

have filled fermented beverage

Our most beautiful ornate pearl necklaces

and our scarlet guayucos

face and body painted

with annatto

entered the round

at are

of trumpets

maracas and drums

and we dance and we turn

at night pale

the jungle

sleep tired and silent.

We know the secrets

of rivers

where we like to swim

carried

as leaves sleepers

or upstream

flush with the bedrock.

We know

Far course of our rivers

and even infinite number

its meandering

etched in our memory

that has no books or writing.

Sometimes

the whole town

goes into the jungle

to fetch logs poisonous

to grind and then threw water fish

large and small

begin to float

on current

asphyxiated and stiff.

All the people back together

Cheerful

heavy stomach and hunger.

Gradually re-populate the river, starting

by crabs brazen

which always escape

our fishing poisonous

Me and my old mates

we often

hunting and fishing

blowgun, bow and arrows

and networks.

The forest surrounding our village

we get

with flapping

of fragile hummingbird.

The Rainbow Orchid

in trees

along the river

funny reflected

in the poaching water.

And large butterflies

Color sky start to cuts

whispering space jungle

sometimes

wakes

startled

by the resounding call

Throwing a couple

inseparable macaw.

Indians and Sex

There is no doubt mankind has felt the impulse to the representation of genitals since remote times, but there are many doubts about the existence of eroticism before the modern era. Today the label eroticism is used only for profane literature and art. If erotic art is exquisitely profane, we must say that erotic art does not live in Indian America. Erotic art was born in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries and found theoretical fathers in the 18th. In Japan it flourished in the shadow of the Tokugawa; in America it found expression only in some Pawnee and Eastern Sioux pipe bowls carved for white customers. If it is true that Europeans brought eroticism to America, it is also true they imported the idea of obscene.

Art and Erotism in Precolumbian America

by Mario.Sartor

A luxuriant, rich natural landscape, tasty food and hot sun did not give birth to the taste of eroticism. In the Precolumbian Codexes sexual features simply identify people; sex is usually feminine and connected either to childbirth (Codex Nuttal) or intercourse (Codex Borgia) where the coitus is exemplified but not represented. In Mesoamerican statues and pottery, male and female are represented by their Transparent Inflatable Commercial Tent For Sale sexual connotations, but even in Totonac and Huaxtec country the relationship between sex and eroticism is still circumscribed in the secret intimacy of the bedroom.Orlando

The Mochica culture of Peru (4th century B. C. – 7th century A. D) gave us a wide production of erotic pottery vases, connected with funerary rites. Rafael Larco Hoyle, the greates collector of Peruvian erotic potteries, classifies the themes in humorous, moralizing, religious-erotic and realistic.ones. These pieces are apparently contradictory, since they are related to death, and are different from the few fallic representations we find in Central and South America. The Mochicas are unambiguous in referring to sexual pleasure; the artist not only portrays “classical” man-woman’s behavior, but explores possible alternatives, independent from any negative moral feature. And there is some self-approval and some comical hint to the indefinite pleasure promised by huge phalluses and gaping, but not aggressive, vulvas. Of course, Mochica eroticism goes beyond sexual pleasure, since some scenes involve gods, thus founding reality through exemplifiyng acts. Yet positive sex as creative dualism is different from erotic freedom expressed by a metallic figurine with a mobile penis produced by the pre-Mochica Frias culture. This is a world far from the grey, dull description of the Inca culture, that Garcilaso de la Vega, “el inca”, left to us in his Commentaries. He mixes Spanish moral censure and demonized vision of his mother’s culture; thus sterilizing sex, which is always represented as wicked and beastly.

 

 

 

Eros and Indian Identity

by Romolo Santoni

What did the Huaxtecs think and feel when they first saw the Spaniards? They were the outcasts of Mesoamerica because of their phallic cult and they maybe hoped to get rid of their Aztec dominators’ eagles following the Christian crosses. Unfortunately they were wrong: both their culture and the Aztec one were swallowed by the maëlstrom of slavery and persecution. The Spaniards despised the peoples they were subjugating so much that only few recorded the terrible years of the Conquest. So we know enough of the great and powerful peoples, the Aztecs, the Mayas, but very little about the Huaxtecs, geographically marginal and, after all, incongenial to most, because of their phallic cult. Tenochtitlans considered the Huaxtecs immoral and lustful and, when they were able to, they persecuted them. Aztec sexual morality was even stricter than that of the Spanish padres that vanquished them. The Aztecs had been nomads under duress for too long and sedentary by choice for too a short time. In their wonderful palaces they kept a nomadic mind, where saving goods and strength was the rule. If sex was a need, eroticism was a useless, depraved deviation. Most Mesoamerican peoples shared this point of view: Olmecs, Teotihuacans, Mayas and Mixtecs ignored sexuality but for its output, life. The naked “pretty ladies” of the Highlands reproduce the ideal mixture of woman and maize and their accentuated sex only synthetizes the symbols of fertility. Naked male children, on the contrary, were important to the Olmecs, but these asexual children did not dare to show the male sex as a symbol of fertility. The rare exhibition of genitals usually meant death. The Danzantes in Monte Alban and the Olmec representation in Chalcatzingo show doomed prisoners of war.

 

 

 

Sacred Sex

by Flavia Busatta

J. Paper observed acutely that scholars usually cannot find tracks of the female rites and cults in the Great Lakes area, which is matrilocal and materlinear and where women had an important economic, political and social role. Even if the Jesuit Relations do not speak of the female side of Indian religion, it signs are scattered in the sacred birch rolls of the Midewiwin Society and in boulders and caves of Iowa and Ontario. Contact with European militant religions, the fur trade and patriarcal agriculture provoked the fading of the goddesses and favored the messianic cults of the 18th century, when the prophets adjusted their religions to the new reality of patriarcal monotheism and economy. Before the predominance of the Great Spirit or Creator, Indians worshipped goddesses, asexual or bisexual gods. A female creator was common to many Eastern Woodlands and Pueblo peoples. Among the Pueblos, the Spanish religious and political rule greatly increased sexual asymmetry, but could not destroy women’s power totally. R. A. Gutierrez, analysing the Spanish colony in New Mexico, shows the balanced relationship between sexes among the Pueblos, symbolized by the gifts to the newborn: a flint arrow for the boys and a corn fetish for the girls. The relationship between sex and food, both promoting life, was expressed by women’s nourishing tasks. For the Pueblos any lifeform, material and spiritual, could be adopted as a relation through food. Women fed their blood relations, the Sun, kachinas, animal fetishes, scalps and the game men brought home. Sexual activity was of the outmost importance for the Pueblo women, because through sex they incorporated their husbands into the matrilineal clans, tamed the spirits of Nature and gave birth to children. Sexuality imbued also the landscape and many names of places are “sexual”. Sexual intercourse was the symbol of cosmic harmony and this was the reason why the winter solstice rites ended with a coitus in Acoma. The function performed by women as transformers of strangers into natives was visible in the women’s societies which, according to Parsons, were genetically warrior societies. Pueblo women performed a symbolic coitus with the scalps and the game, incorporating them in the village. One of the aims of the women’s societies was the strengthening of the relationship existing between agricultural and human fertility; this was exemplified by the dances of the Hopi women’s societies, Marau, Lakon and Oaqol. The old ritual coitus once performed has been substituted by a more caste symbolic basket, but the true meaning of the Lakon, Marau and Oaqol societies is expressed by a figure carved on a rock near Oraibi: a Marau girl showing an enormous vulva, ready to copulate.

 

 

 

Courtiship Among the Oglalas

by William. K. Powers

Before the reservation period, any young man who had made a reputation in hunting or warfare was eligible to look for a marriageable partner. The matter of love was very much analogous to the matter of war and ritual specialists were called upon to prescribe the appropriate rituals and procedures. The Oglala believed that such men were imbued with special powers derived from the bull elk, mule deer and pronghorn, the renowned polygamists ungulates. Aggression and success in love were not exclusively in the purview of the males. Promiscuous women derived their power to seduce men from the mule deer and sometimes from the female elk. Stories about these “deer women” are still told on the Northern and Southern Plains. These women, according to Oglala cosmology, ultimately received their power from the fabulous Anukite, Double-Face. In addition to ungulates, various kinds of birds played important roles in the courtship process: the redheaded woodpecker, sandhill crane and prairie chicken are associated with love, particularly with the courting flute. The Lakota term wiiyape (to wait for a woman) refers to the custom of a man’s hiding along a trail which he knows a young woman will take on her way to fetch water. Young women often strolled about the camp with a female companion and a would-be suitor could simply stop her and try to talk with her. Although apparently alone, the couple was never very far away from watchful eyes. The indispensable article of amatory behavior was the dress blanket, of which the most favored one was the blue trade cloth blanket decorated with a wide beaded strip interspersed with large beaded rosettes called “blanket with a backbone”. The pictographs show how the blanket was worn and how it was used to envelope the young woman during the tête-à-tête. A woman had to be mindful of the words she selected in these conversations. If she spoke thoughtlessly, the young man, particularly a jilted lover, might use her words as the basis for a love song. The young man sang as if it were his sweetheart talking, sometimes in an embarrassing parody of the lovers’ intimate words.

 

 

 

A Clot of Blood

by Sandra Busatta

Indian knowledge of animal physiology had been favored by observation of game; war, torture and cannibalism had informed on human physiology and traditional medicine, curing broken bones and diseases through manipulation and herbs, had increased information. Living in multifamiliar dwellings gave the chance of witnessing the mechanism of sexual intercourse as well as ceremonies where the ritual coitus was performed. Yet did the Indians know the mechanism of fecundation, did they know it was the result of the union of ovum and spermatozoon?

Mythology helps us to understand what were Indian ideas about the origin of life. In a Wichita myth a pregnant woman is killed by a monster; her mother and her virgin sister ( the three of them represent the phases of the Moon) put a drop of her blood in a vase and after three days a boy comes out, the Sun. Grandmother Nokomish creates the Menomini cultural hero Manabush from some dirt transformed into blood in a bowl, while Skunk can save herself and her husband Badger creating a boy from a clot of buffalo blood in a pot in a Sweet Grass Cree myth. Skunk and Badger are important animal symbols of female genitals and childbirth, while the vase or pot has been a metaphor of pregnancy since time immemorial both in the Old and the New World. Mythical and physiological ideas on sex as a procreative act reflect more or less accentuated sexual asymmetry in Indian societies. This is marked among the Lakota, where sperm was considered more important in procreation; Indians did not know the existence of the ovum, but they were very different ideologically. The Lakotas had been subject to a profound patriarcal veer, showed also by their cosmological myth: Inyan, the stone, is male, but gives origin to the world as a woman, squeezing his blue blood from his body. In the materlineal societies of the Southwest, where women had grater power , Zuni couples prayed Mother Rock in order to have a girl as a child. Indian priests, who formed public opinion through myths, believed that the menstral blood, coming from the liver, was fecundated by the male semen and stopped flowing. This way it served as nourisment to sperm, which began to form a foetus. Many tribes thought women were more fertile when menstruated and Mead found the Omaha practised the menstrual tabu not only to proptect men, but also a supposed birth control. Many tribes believed that a baby could be formed only after many tries; some interrupted sexual intercourse during pregnancy and even until complete weaning, others interrupted only after the quickening, lest to give birth to twins. The Hopi and the other Pueblos, on the other hand, believed that a child had to be “irrigated” as a field of corn during pregnancy and that sex reinforced mother and child.

 

 

 

Sex and Religion on the Upper Missouri

by Alfred W. Bowers

This classic excerpt on the Mandan and Hidatsa recalls the practice of exchanging supernatural powers through ritual coitus between the applicant (“son”)’s wife and the “father” owning ritual prerogatives. This model applied to the Red Stick ceremony and to most age graded societies. But not every “father” was above suspect: many old men, widowers or men abandoned by their wives offered their supernatural power to younger “sons” in order to solve their sexual needs. Also many white traders exploited this ritual custom for lay purposes.

Sexual Intercourse and Sacred Plants

by Giorgio Samorini Some Native American peoples associate in a special way sexual intercourse and the act of assuming psychoactive plants or drinks to get an alteration of one’s state of consciousness, a “revelation” or an “enlightenment”. The state of mind one reaches during the coitus is identified with that one gets through a hallucinogen and this identification is reflected in myths and beliefs. The payé of the Desana, a Tukano speaking Amazonian tribe, makes large use of the yajé, the hallucinogenic drink known as ayahuasca, extracted from the so called “dead man’s liane” or Banisteriopsis caapi. The visionary-emotional state provoked by the yajé and that of the coitus are considered equivalent and both states have the same color, yellow. The Desana cosmogonic myth referred by Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff speaks of Father Sun’s “yellow purpose”, which refers to sexual intercourse, and the myth on the origin of the yajé tells of the incestuous relationship between Father Sun and his daughter, Yajé Woman, the first human being whose child is not a baby, but a liane. The association between coitus and hallucinogen is not peculiar only to the Tukano. In North America the Creek tell a myth where the first tobacco plant grows from a place where a young couple had a sexual intercourse. The Creek call the tobacco plant hitchi, but when they smoke it they call it haisa, the same name used for coitus. Also among the Hitchiti, neighbours of the Creek, tobacco is originated by a coitus. Only recently western scientists have recognized the psycho-biological affinity between the state of consciusness reached during the orgasm and altered states of consciousness provoked by different means. Some Indian peoples already knew that.

Males Crazy for Honey

by Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff

A short survey of the beliefs of the Desana, a Tukano speaking tribe of the Upper Vaupés, in Columbian Amazon, about sex.. They associate male semen and honey, even if they believe that woman’s secretion is a kind of female sperm and that fecundation is provoked by a mixture of the two. They believe that women’s sexual potential is stronger than men’s; that men have to help the birth of male babies, having sexual intercourse during the first three months of pregnancy, following dietary prescriptions and having their wives to eat honey, a “male” food. The Desana also have a complex symbolism of the womb, which is compared to a house, a hearth, a pot, a nest, a “shell” or a shelter: The placenta is a cloth, a shell compared to a bag, a hammock or a basket and also a spiderweb, while the spider and the bat represent the vagina. But the most common symbol of the placenta is the enormous anaconda snake.

Indian Storytellers, Spider Woman’s Granddaughters

by Fedora Giordano Thought Woman, Spider Woman, or Spider Grandmother is an androgynous cosmic principle for the Laguna Indians. There are numberless variants of the mythical tales, in which Spider Old Woman creates reality from herself and represents a protective, maternal image for the Pueblos, their neighbors, the Navajos, and also the Kiowas and Cherokees. She embodies the art of storytelling for the Pueblo writers and especially female storytelling. In Leslie Silko’s Ceremony Tayo’s dramatic search of his identity cannot leave out myth, that is the archetypical model. Spider Woman is also the glyph of the last, monumental book written by Silko, Almanac of the Dead. Paula Gunn Allen, Laguna Pueblo and related to Silko, is one of the most brilliant Indian feminists and a rare example of an Indian writer interested also in Western mythology. In The Sacred Hoop she reconstructs the hypothesis of a “ritual gynocracy” before European contact through the images of Spider Woman, Mother Corn and White Buffalo Woman. In her novel The Woman Who Owned the Shadows the myth of Spider Woman is pivotal not only as the archetype of storytelling and female creativeness, but also as one of the models of the main character’s life. This idea is expressed also in the anthology Spider Woman’s Granddaughters. Thought-Spider Old Woman is seen here as a worrior woman and around this image Gunn Allen collects mythical tales and short stories by 19th and 20th women writers. Interviews to the major women writers can be read in Laura Coltelli’s Words Made of Dawn.

Indian and AIDS A new disease threatens Indian health. The Indians are trying to find a solution conciliating money cuts and the research for prevention within neotraditional values. There is a contradiction between a new stress on chastity and traditional sexual freedom enjoyed by Navajo girls. There is also something new in the warning made to Sundancers to have their own lancet and plastic gloves ready avoid mixing blood.

And the Vatican Telescope Saw the Spirits

“Scientific” occupation of an Apache religious site provokes protests; ambientalists and traditional Apaches protested against the building of a group of telescopes on Mount Graham, Arizona, by a pool of Universities, among which University of Arizona, the Observatory of Arcetri, Florence, Italy, the Vatican observatory called the Specola and the Max Planck Institute, Germany. If the various lay scientific associations may be charged of speculating and having a very concrete special interests (the ideal of “progress”, career for the partecipants, governments’ funds, etc.) the Vatican can be charged of having a religious interest in occupiyng the site because they know (though they deny it) it is an Apache religious place.

Tupi – Guarani

The Tupi – Guaranian family is, problably the best studied native american languages group in Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Guyana. The first studies were done by portugueses and spaniards during the XVI Century. A language of this family, the Guarany, is official language of Paraguay.

Akwáwa

Asuriní do Tocantins
Fonte: LARAIA, Roque de Barros (Museu Nacional do RJ-ILV), Transparent Inflatable Commercial Tent For Sale HARRISON, Carl H. (1960-ILV); NICHOLSON, Vera (ILV). ILV: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kayabi-Arawete (V): Braz. ASURINI, XINGU. ASN. Local.: Tocantins River, PA. Sinonímia: Asurini do Trocará, Akwáwa, Suruí do Tocantins

aCi, hatšia chifre, ponta / cuerno, punta / horn, point [PTG51]
a’e ele, aquele / él, aquello / he, that one [PTG77]
ahapota oetangapype despedida, até amanhã / despedida hasta mañana / farewell, see you later
-ahy &nbbsp; força, com / con fuerza / with strenght
a’íy, ha’ytša semente / semilla / seed
aka estar / estar / to be
akoma’e homem / hombre / man
akwapetym, o- fechar / cerrar / to close
aky’kya macaco guariba / esp. de mono / variety of monkey
akyng(a), aking cabeça / cabeza / head [PTG33]
‘am deitar / acostar / to lie [PTG71]
amin, ámyn chuva / lluvia / rain [PTG54]
amoa, amote outro / outro / other [PTG5]
amote-ramo depois, mais tarde / después, más tarde / after, later
amote-ramo outro dia, mais tarde / outro día, más tarde / other day, later
amyna okyng chover, estar chovendo / llover / to rain
amynime inverno / invierno / winter
amynysoa algodão / algodón / cotton
anga casa / casa / house [PTG41]
angohoa casa grande / casa larga / large house
anohi não, não tem / no, no tiene / no, not, there is not
ape costas / espaldas / back [PTG65]
aping sentar / sentar / to sit [PTG194]
apo, oapo fazer / hacer / to do, to make
apo, omonyng acender fogo soprando / encender el fuego soplando / light fire blowing
apy, api queimar / quemar / to burn [PTG177]
apyha ouvido interno / oído interno / inner ear
ara dia / día / day [PTG74]
arara arara / guacamayo / macaw
-árimo & sobre, por cima / sobre / upon
aro, oaro esperar / esperar / to wait
asan nepyri cumprimento, saudação / saludos / compliment, greeting
ata aha, oata aha caçar, andar / cazar, andar / to hunt, to walk [PTG10], [Swa084]
ata, oata andar / andar / to walk [PTG10]
aw cabelo / cabello, pelo / hair [PTG34]
aw pena / pluma / feather [PTG166]
awa quem / quien / who
awace?i homem, pessoa, gente / hombre, persona, gente / man, person, people [PTG101]
awaCi, awatšia milho / maíz / corn [PTG128]
awyra, hetoma casa / casa / house [Swa095]
ayoro, asorohoa papagaio / loro / parrot [PTG156]
eha olho / ojo / eye [PTG147]
ehira, warowa mel, açucar / miel, azucar / honney, sugar
eino assim / así / so
enee tu / tú / you (2.p.) [PTG218]
enoi, oenoi chamar / llamar / to call
enom ouvir, escutar / oir / to listen [PTG151]
eny(a), ení saliva / saliva / spittle [PTG189]
eope aquele / aquél / that [PTG14], [Swa077]
eowyi ali, está / está allí / is there
eraha, oeraha levar / llevar / to carry
erehapota despedida, você vai / adiós, despedida / farewell
ereka ter / ter / to have
eron, oeron trazer / traer / to bring
esa(ng), aCnag, eCang ver, conhecer / ver / to see [PTG208]
‘esiroa coisa / cosa / thing
eta, heta, he’yi muitos / muchos / many [PTG134]
eton cheirar / oler / to smell [PTG50]
etýmoa, etimoci?an perna / pierna / leg [PTG167]
etyng, oetyng deixar / dejar / to leave
ewena barriga / vientre / belly [Swa004]
eweng estômago / estómago / stomach [PTG23]
ewo’i verme, minhoca / gusano / worm [PTG210]
há, aha ir / ir / to go [PTG106]
hahy dor / dolor / pain
haitya ninho / nido / nestle
hakom doente, com calor / enfermo, caliente / sick, hot
hakom quente / caliente / hot [PTG178]
hato duro / duro / hard
hato forte / fuerte / strong
hatya esposa, mulher / esposa, mujer / wife [PTG135]
hawa pena do peito / pluma del pecho / chest feather
heakasym esquecer / olvidar / to forget
he’e cheiroso, bom /oloroso, bueno / odorous, good
hekosara filha da irmã (fi) / hija de la hermana / sister’s daughter
hekosara filho da irmã / hijo de la hermana / sister’s son (Fi)
hemoninoa filha do filho (fF), filha da filha (ff) / hija del hijo, hija de la hija / son’s daughter, daughter’s daughter
hemoninoa filho do filho (FF), filho da filha (Ff) / hijo del hijo, hijo de la hija / son’s son, son’s daughter
henone em frente de / en frente / in front
henyra filha do irmão do pai (FIP) / hija del hermano del padre / daughter of father’s brother
henyra irmã (i), filha da irmã da mãe (fim) / hermana, hija de la hermana de la madre / sister, daughter of mother’s sister
heomaw animal doméstico / animal domestico / domestic animal [PTG26]
hera, er nome / nombre / name [PTG141]
hewiri atrás de / atrás de / behind of
hey, pohey lavar / lavar / to wash [PTG111]
-hi &nbssp; de / de / of
hikee mãe / madre / mother [PTG118]
hoime, oime’e agudo, afiado, cortante, amolar / cortante / sharp [PTG3]
hym, him liso / liso / smooth [PTG113]
i- dele / de él / his
i- ele, ela / él, ella / he, she, it
i’a, ywaa fruta / fruta / fruit
iakym, ?akim molhado / mojado / wet [PTG129]
iapo?a redondo / redondo / round [PTG183]
ie?i intestinos, entranhas / intestino, entrañas / intestine, gut [PTG204]
ihya, hyke mãe (m), irmã da mãe (im) / madre, hermana de la madre / mother, mother’s sister
ikam gordo / gordo / fat
ikano torcido, tortuoso / torcido / twisted
ikawen magro / magro / thin
ikwakiga, koakyga dedo / dedo / finger [PTG70]
ikwan furado / agujereado / pierced
inima linha, fio / hilo / thread
inimapo’ia linha fina / hilo delgado / thin thread
i’onga imagem, foto / image, foto / image, photo
ipira peixe / pez, pescado / fish [PTG164]
ipirahy índio bravo / índigena bravo / brave indigenous
ipira-pyýkawa rede de pesca / red para pescar / fish net
ipiton, ipyton(oho) noite / noche / night [PTG139]
ipohoi pesado / pesado / heavy [PTG168]
ipyasei meia-noite / media noche / midnight
ipyky’yra irmã menor / hermana menor / younger sister
ipyteripe no meio de / nel médio de / in the middle
irongatoete quatro / cuatro / four
iropema peneira redonda / cedazo redondo / round sieve
irosinga cesta (palha), sacola / alforja (paja) / straw wallet
iro’y febre / fiebre / fever
iroyhyng trovão / trueno / thunder
isarike mãe da mãe, irmã do pai do pai (iPP), filho da irmã / hijo de la hermana / sister’s son (Fi)
isarokynga caibro / cabrio / rafter, tie beam
isasememyra filha da irmã do pai (fiP) / hija de la hermana del padre / daughter of father’s sister
isasememyra filho da irmã do pai (FiP) / hijo de la hermana del padre / son of father’s sister
isokyry amarelo, verde / amarillo, verde / yellow, green
isymyna velho / viejo / old
ita pedra / piedra / stone [PTG161]
itakwoipia colher grande de madeira / cuchara larga de madera / large wooden spoon
itakya pedra de amolar / piedra de afilar / sharpen stone
itasoa ferrinho (uma ferramenta) / hierritto (una herramienta) / little iron (a tool)
itotyra irmão da mãe / hermano de la madre / mother’s brother (Im)
itotyra?yra filho do irmão da mãe (FIm) / hijo del hermano de la madre / son of mother’s brother
itotyrasyra filha do irmão da mãe (fIm) / hija del hermano de la madre / daughter of mother’s brother
itowyn seco / seco / dry
itšara dono / dueño / boss
itšasêe irmã do pai (iP) / hermana del padre / father’s sister
iwapa, hapa raiz / raíz / root [PTG181]
iwira tiras de casca / tira de cascara
iwira(‘i), ywyrai pau, vara / madera / stick [PTG159]
iwise, iwiseoho grande / grande / large
iwotira, ywotyra flor / flor / flower [PTG90]
i’yahoa novo, nova / nuevo, nueva / new
iyee, tše- eu / yo / I, me [PTG84]
ka aqui (sente-se) / aquí (sentate) / here (sit down)
‘ka?i macaco / mono / ape, monkey [PTG116]
ka’a, hawa folha / hoja / leaf
ka’a, ‘ka?aa mata, país / bosque / forest
kaa, kopisa roça / roza, chacra / plantation
kai queimar / quemar / to burn [PTG176]
kamo mamar / mamar / to suck
kani’o cansado / cansado / tired
kanoa canoa / canoa / canoe
kariy raspar / raspar / to scrape [PTG182]
karowarohoa paca / paca / paca, spotted cavy
kato, ikato, iari bom / bueno / good [PTG29]
kato, ikato, iaro bonito / bonito / beautiful
katoy’ym mau / malo / bad
-katy &nnbsp; por aqui, para cá / por aquí / by here, to here
kaw gordura, graxa / gordura, grasa / fat, slush [PTG19]
ker, ken dormir / dormir / to sleep [PTG76]
kiCi cortar / cortar / to cut [PTG64] ou [PTG85]
kiting, pin raspar, esfregar / raspar / to scrape, to rub [PTG79]
ko(a) língua / lengua / tongue [PTG112]
koape unha, garra / uña / fingernail [PTG206]
ko’emamo manhã cedo / temprano por la mañana / early in the morning
kom seio / seno / breast [PTG163]
komanaisi’ia arroz / arroz / rice
konomi menino / niño / young boy [PTG127]
konomia criança / niño / child
kopi’ia cupim / comején / termite
korawa cipó fino / esp. de achiote / variety of liana
korong urinar / orinar / to urinate
kosa cuia / calabazo / calabash
kosio macaco coxiu / esp. de mono / variety of monkey
kosoa, koyo mulher / mujer / woman
kotong picar, furar / huecar / to bore [PTG97]
kwaham, okwaham saber / saber / to know [PTG187]
kwanoa gavião / gavilán / hawk
kwarahi, kwarahya sol / sol / sun [PTG195], [Swa074]
kwarahya-ke-ramo pôr-do-sol / poner del sol / sundown
kwarahy-pyteri-pe meio-dia / medio-día / noon
kwaripe verão / verano / summer
kwe, kotšete longe / lejos / far
kyhe, kihe faca / cuchillo / knife [PTG85]
kyhe, kihe facão / machete / large knife
kykyra periquito / perico / parakeet
-kyng, king &nbbsp; osso, caveira / hueso, calavera / bone, skull [PTG150]
kywa, kiwa piolho / piojo / louse [PTG171], [Swa045]
kywawa pente / peine / comb
kyyye, okyyse, kiiye temer, ter medo / temer / to fear [PTG200]
ma’e pa que é? / que és? / what is it?
maman atirar, jogar / arrojar / to throw [PTG109]
maman, omaman jogar / arrojar / to throw
mana, omana, omon dar / dar / to give
mani?anga mandioca / yuca / manioc [PTG120]
mara nime pa quando? / cuando? / when?
matša, may cobra / culebra / snake [PTG 57]
meih mentir / mentir / to lie
memyra filho / hijo / son
misara veado / venado / deer
mo pa onde? / donde? / where?
moaika, omoaika estender / extender / to extend
moatšon, omoatšon empurrar / empujar / to push
moka’e, omoka’e moquear / ahumar / to smoke
mokoi dois / dos / two [PTG75]
mokon engolir / engullir / to swallow
monem vestir-se / vestirse / to dress oneself
mongaro dar comida (para outro)
mopinim, omopinim escrever / escribir / to write
mosywang, o- escrever / escribir / to write
mopong, omopong atirar (com arma) / tirar / to fire
moresákawa espelho / espejo / mirror
motywyn, omotowyn enxugar / enjugar / to dry
mowam, omowam peneirar / cernir / to sift
‘na, o’an cair / caer / to fall [PTG35]
na’iroihi três / tres / three
nami(a) orelha / oreja / ear [PTG149]
ne- você / usted / you (s.)
nemena, man marido / marido / husband
nokwahawihi ignorar, não saber / no saber / to unknow
nong, onong botar, deixar / poner, dejar / to put, to let
nopo, onopo bater / batir / to hit [PTG24]
o ‘oa tosse / tos / cough
‘o, okaro comer / comer / to eat [PTG59]
o?iw, o?ywa flecha / frecha / arrow [PTG89]
o’ang arrancar, colher / tirar / to pull
oapo hehe sarar, passar / sanar / to cure
oe’e brotar, nascer / brotar, germinar / to bud
oha caranguejo / cangrejo / crab
ohei, oohei desejar, querer / desear / to desire
-oho &nbbsp; muito, grande / mucho, grande / much, big
-oho, ete &nbssp; força, com muita / com mucha fuerza / with big strength
ohym limpar com pano / limpiar / to clean
o’ia farinha / harina / flour
okopeo fora de casa / fuera de casa / out of house
okotong coser, costurar / costurar / to sew
okyta esteio / sostén / prop
omói pisar / pisar / to step on
omonyng assoprar o fogo / soplar el fuego / to blow the fire
on, ot vir / venir / to come [PTG215]
o’o comer, fumar / comer, fumar / to eat, to smoke
o’o morder / morder / to bite [PTG130]
opi’a, hopi’a ovo / huevo / egg [PTG152]
oporongeta contar, relatar / relatar / to tell
oree, ore- nós (exclus.) / nosotros (exclus.) / we (exclus.) [PTG142]
orokore’a coruja / lechuza / owl
orowa urubu / buitre / vulture
ose’iwe amanhã / mañana / tomorrow
osepewei sozinho / solo / alone
otšaro bravo / bravo / brave
otši, oapytši atar, amarrar / atar / to tie
owákoa coxa / mulso / thigh
owy(a), owi sangue / sangre / blood [PTG190]
oy, serosa dente / diente / tooth [PTG72]
oyepe, osepesowe um / uno / one [PTG205]
pa pergunta / pregunta / question
pa(a) mão / mano / hand [PTG121]
pam, opam terminar, acabar / terminar / to finish
pang acordar-se / despertarse / to awake (refl.)
papyng tremer (doente) / temblar (enfermo) / to flicker (sick)
parano(a) rio / río / river [PTG185]
pasi’ywa ralador para mandioca / rallador / grater
patši’ywa madeira, esp. de / esp. de madera / variety of wood
pe ali / allá / there
-pe &nbssp; para / para / to
pe, pee caminho, trilha / camino / trail, path [PTG36]
pehee, pe- vocês / usteds / you (pl.) [PTG219]
pepa asa / ala / wing [PTG17]
pepyn, opepyn puxar / tirar / to pull
petim cigarro, fumo, tabaco / tabaco / tobacco [PTG96]
petyma fumo, tabaco / tabaco / tobacco
petysinga papel / papel / paper
petysinga-mosywakawa lápis, caneta / lápiz / pencil, pen
peyo soprar / soplar / to blow [PTG196]
pihim pintar / pintar / to paint
pihom bicar / picotear / to peck
pihon, hon preto, negro, sujo / negro, sucio / black, dirty [PTG175]
pin raspar, esfregar / raspar / to scrape, to rub
pin, opin, opiram descascar (mandioca) / descarcar (yuca) / to bark (manioc)
pinawa palha / paja / straw
pipi pequeno / pequeño / small, little [Swa069]
pirer(a) pele retirada / piel sacada / removed skin [PTG165d]
pirong, ipirong vermelho / rojo / red [PTG212]
-po &nbssp; com, com alguém / con, con alguién / with, with someone
pohanga (poçanga) remédio / remedio / medicine, drug
poka, opoka rir / rir / to laugh
-poko, ípoko & comprido / largo / long [PTG61]
ponekwam, o- trocar / cambiar / to change
po’om ficar em pé / quedar en pié / to stand [PTG82]
porahai, oporahai dançar, dança / danzar, danza / to dance, dance
-poro- + verbo p; povo / pueblo / people
porongeta, o- conversar, falar / hablar, charlar / to speak, to talk
porotšoka matar gente / matar una persona / to kill someone
posi, potši excretar / excretar / to excrete
potan, opotan desejo / deseo / desire
powon, opowon fiar / hilar / to spin
py(a), pi pé / pié / foot [PTG160]
py’a, pi’a fígado, estômago / higado, estómago / liver, stomach [PTG21]
pyhy(ng), opyhy(ng) pescar, pegar peixe / agarrar (pescado) / to take (fish), to fish [PTG13d]
pyhy, pihi pegar, tirar foto / agarrar / to take [PTG13]
pykawa borboleta / mariposa / butterfly
pykwoi, opykwoi torrar farinha / assar harina / asar / to roast flour
pykywoi’ang, o- tirar a água (de buraco, etc.) / sacar la água / to draw out water
-pype, -ipype, pipe & dentro de / adentro de / inside of [PTG1]
-pyri &nnbsp; com (instrumento) / con (instrumento) / with, with (tool)
pyta ficar (pessoa) / quedar (persona) / to stay (person)
pytohem, pitoekic respirar / respirar / to breathe [PTG184]
pywon, opywon mexer, misturar (mingau) / mesclar (gachas) / to mix (gruel)
-ra’a, a?aa &nnbsp; carne / carne / meat, flesh [PTG40]
-rame &nnbsp; agora / ahora / now
-rame &nnbsp; logo, agora / luego, ahora / soon, now
-rehe &nnbsp; em, sobre, atrás de / en, sobre, atras de / in, upon, behind of
ropéhyi com sono, eu / com sueño, yo /
-rowake ; perto de / cerca de / close of
ro’y, roihi, ro?ioho frio / frío / cold [PTG93]
rywete, serorywete alegre / alegre / gay
sa’e, as’e-mepia pote, panela de barro / pote / pot
sae’e pote de barro / pote de barro / clay jar
samewa forno de ferro pequeno / pequeño horno de hierro / small iron oven
samewa, samewohoa forno de harina / horno de harina / flour oven
samewohoa forno de ferro grande / grande horno de hierro / large iron oven
sata banana / banana, platano / banana
sawarangawa gato / gato / cat
sawara-pinimowa’e onça pintada / tipo de onza / variety of ounce
serenone em frente de mim / en mi frente / in my front
serewiri atrás de mim / atrás de mi / behind me
soa castanha do pará / nuez de brasil / brazilian nut
sokyra, ise’e sal / sale / salt
soowa espinho / espina / thorn
soowia capim, grama / capin / grass
sorosai bocejar / bostezar / to yawn
sya, yi machado / hacha / axe [PTG117]
sy’oa coração / corazón / heart
tamanowa tamanduá / oso hormiguero / anteater
tamoyñe pai do pai (PP), pai da mãe (Pm) / padre del padre, padre de la madre / father’s father, mother’s father
tapi?ira anta / danta, tapir / tapir, anta [PTG11]
tapi’a limão / lemón / lemon
tapi’irohoa boi / buey / bull
tarang, otarang rasgar / rasgar, romper / to tear
tasahoa queixada / taiaçu / sajino / hog
tashahoa queixada, porco / cerdo, puerco / pig
tasyra filha (f), filha do irmão (fI) / hija, hija del hermano / daughter, brother’s daughter
tata fogo / fuego / fire [PTG91], [Swa026]
tatapysa cinzas / cenizas / ash
tatasing fumaça / humo / smoke [PTG95] e [PTG30]
ta’yra filho (F), filho do irmão (FI) / hijo, hijo del hermano / son, brother’s son
tekeyra filho do irmão do pai (FIP) / hijo del hermano del padre / son of the father’s brother
tekeyra irmão (I), filho da irmã da mãe (Fim) / hermano, hijo de la hermana de la madre / brother, son of de mother’s sister
tenawa banco / banco / seat
tokana tucano / tucán / toucan
tokoma tucumã / esp. de palmera / a variety of palm-tree
topahom corda / cuerda / rope, cord, string [PTG62]
topawa rede / hamaca / hammock
tope pai / padre / father
topoa relâmpago / relámpago / lightining
toria branco, homem branco / hombre blanco / whiteman
tororo, otororo esgotando, esvaziando / agotando / exhausting, to draining
towa pai (P), irmão do pai (IP) / padre, hermano del padre / father, father’s brother
tšahong tomar banho / bañar / to bath
tšanypawa jenipapo / esp. de fruta / variety of fruit
tšaotšia jabuti / esp. de tortuga / variety of turtle
tšawara cachorro / perro / dog [PTG148d]
tšawatšia martim-pescador / esp. de ave / variety of bird
tša’ywa castanheira / esp. de castaño / variety of chesnut-tree
tšeapeaka, o- escutar, pensar / escuchar, pensar / to listen
tšeehym esfregar os olhos / esfregar los ojos / to rub (eyes)
tše’eng, o-, ye’eng falar / hablar / to speak [PTG86]
tše’engahy, o- brigar / luchar / to fight
tšekyi, mano morrer / morir / to die
tšemoarai, o- brincar / jugar / to play [PTG31]
tšepaamowai, o- cortar a mão / cortar la mano / cut hand
tšepeawa lenha / leña / firewood
tšewyn, otšewyn voltar / volver / to come back
tši, si(a) nariz, bico / nariz, pico / nose, beak [PTG138]
tšing, Cing branco (cor) / blanco (color) / white (color) [PTG30]
tšoka matar / matar / to kill [PTG124]
tšon, otšon correr / corrir / to run
tšonopo, otšonopo bater-se uns nos outros
tšym, otšym descer / bajar / to go down
tšywarawyhoma laço no braço / afeite para el brazo
tya, kanoa-rya garapa, caldo de cana / jugo de caña / variety of cane jug
tyami, otyami espremer / exprimir / to press out
tyarahy fome / hambre / hungry
tyaro crescer / crecer / to grow
tykera irmã maior / hermana mayor / older sister
tykom, piten chupar / chupar / to suck [PTG53]
tym, otym plantar, enterrar / plantar / to plant
tynehem cheio / lleno / full
typy fundo / fondo / bottom
typy’anga tapioca / esp. de yuca / variety of manioc
tyroa pano, roupa / tejido, ropa / tissue, clothe
wai, wasa rabo / cola / tail [PTG179]
warikore, tapawasa moquém, defumado / ahumado / smoked
we’en, owe’eng vomitar / vomitar / to vomit [PTG220]
weram relampejar / relampear / to
werotšerem, o- virar (canoa) / volver (canoa) / to turn (canoe)
wewe, owewe voar / volar / to fly [PTG217]
wewoi nadar, boiar / nadar, boyar / to swim, to float
wewoy boiar / boyar / to float [PTG28]
wyra, wira ave, pássaro / ave, pájaro / bird [PTG158]
wyra-pase galinha / gallina / hen
wyra-pypewa pato / pato / duck
-wýrimo ; em baixo de / abajo de / under
y(a), i água / agua / water [PTG4]
ya?kare, tšakaré jacaré / yacare / alligator [PTG107]
ya’ee, paratoa panela / olla / pan [PTG154]
yahi, sahýa lua / luna / moon [PTG115]
yahita’ta, tšahytata estrela / estrella / star [PTG83]
yanee, tšene- nós (inclus.) / nosotros (inclus.) / we (inclus.) [PTG143]
ya-ratasinga nevoeiro / niebla / thick fog
yawar, sawara onça, cachorro / onza, perro / tiger, dog [PTG148]
yhara, ihara canoa / canoa / canoe [PTG38]
yhynga breu / brea / pitch
ymawe ontem / ayer / yesterday
ymyra mão de pilão / mano de mortero / pestle hand
yngo’a pilão / mortero / pestle
y’o, i?o beber / beber / to drink [PTG25]
yohei sede / sed / thirst
yokiri verde / verde / green [PTG188]
yor(a), sora pescoço / pescuezo, cuello / neck [PTG169]
yoro, soroa boca / boca / mouth [PTG27]
ypa-potyra flor de árvore / flor de árbol / tree flower [PTG16d]
ysa terra / tierra / earth, soil
yse’e poço / pozo / well
ytoa cachoeira, salto / cachivera / falls
ywa okai-pam queimar a roça / quemar la roza / burn to plant
ywa, ywyra, iwa árvore, vara / árbol / tree [PTG16]
ywa-hona semente preta / semilla negra / black seed
ywang, iwang céu / cielo / sky [PTG47]
ywanga-hon, -sing nuvem / nube / cloud
ywa-pirera, iapekwera cortiça, casca de árvore / corteza / bark [PTG16d]
ywa-pironga semente vermelha / semilla roja / red seed
ywy, iwi, terra / tierra / earth [PTG201]
ywykai, iwikai, cavar / cavar / to dig [PTG44]
ywyrapahoma, tokoa corda de arco / hilo del arco / bow’s thread [PTG15d]
ywyrapar, iwirapar arco / arco / bow [PTG15]
ywyri beira, margem / margen / bank, riverside
ywyto, iwito vento / viento / wind [PTG207]
ywýtyra, iwitir, ywytir monte, colina / monte / hill, mount [PTG132]
yypa cipó grosso / esp. de achiote / variety of liana
y’ysa lontra / nutria / otter

Parakanã
Fonte: Citado por RODRIGUES, Aryon D. ILV: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV): Braz. PARAKANA. PAK

ken dormir / dormir / to sleep [PTG76]
Cahi, txahýa lua / luna / moon [PTG115]

Amanaye
Fonte: Citado por RODRIGUES, Aryon D. ILV: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Oyampi (VIII): Braz. AMANAYE. AMA

jahý lua / luna / moon [PTG115]

Anambé
Fonte: ROSENFELDER, Mark; Numbers 1 to 10. ILV: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Oyampi (VIII): Braz. ANAMBE. AAN. Extinta. (Turiwára?)

irun sete / sete / seven
mukuen dois / dos / two
muhapi três / tres / three
nuyupitä quatro / cuatro / four
pitâ oito / ocho / eight
popayuwä dez / diéz / ten
ruanya seis / seis / six
ruwäkä nove / nueve / nine
uuaiyärä cinco / cinco / five
yanäpo tepa um / uno / one

Turiwára
Fonte: Citado por RODRIGUES, Aryon D. ILV: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV): Braz. TURIWARA. TWT. Obs. RODRIGUES, dá a possibilidade de ser o Anambé.

jahý lua / luna / moon [PTG115]
kwarahý sol, céu, dia / sol, cielo, día / sun, sky, day [PTG195]

Apiaká
Fonte: CASTELNAU, CAMPOS, Murilo – Interior do Brasil. Notas medicas e ethnographicas. Rio de Janeiro, 1936. ILV: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kawahib (VI): Braz. APIACA. API. Sinonímia Apiacá do Tapajós. Parcialmente cediddo por Renato Nicolai (veja link).

adzipeipotari, majupé um / uno / one
Ae-hia Deus / Diós / God
aguasú palmeira pindoba / esp. de palmera / a variety of palm tree
ahéra filho / hijo / son
ahira mel / miel / honey
aiakau-he dor de cabeça / dolor de cabeza / head ache
aiapeáo orelha / oreja / ear
aiebepiára baço / bazo / spleen
aietoá nuca / nuca / nape
ai-he dor / dolor / pain
aikãhá osso / hueso / bone
aikama seio / seno / breast
aikambe-há leite / leche / milk
aikaruaraea pneumonia / neumonia / pneumonia
aikoa língua / lengua / tongue
aikubáéva calor / calor / heat
aikupekanguevá coluna vertebral / columna vertebral /
aikura pescoço / pescuezo, cuello / neck
aimemberá parto / parto / childbirth
aioguirá estômago / estómago / stomach [Swa004]
aipatchiá peito / pecho / chest
aipeá pé / pié / foot
aipe-há fígado / higado / lung
aipira pele / piél / skin
aipoá mão / mano / hand
aipoáen-hia mínimo / minimo / minimun
aipoána polegar / pulgar / thumb
aipoanapenára dedo indicador / indicador / indicator finger
aipoápen-há unha / uña / neddle
airiekwára olho / ojo / eye
aisevá braço / brazo / arm
aisúporá tatuagem / tatuaje / tattoo
aitãhá-há coração / corazón / heart
aitchin-ha nariz / nariz / nose
aite-há icterícia / ictericia / jaundice
aite-há urina / orina / urine
aiti ninho / nido / nest
aitoá umbigo / ombligo / navel
aitumakãhe dor na perna / dolor en la pierna / leg ache
aiuvá coxa / muslo / thigh
aivánindivá barba / barba / beard
aivekãhe dor de barriga / dolor de vientre / belly ache
aizarúka-há costela / costilla / rib
aizuioga pomo-de-adão / pomo de Adan / Adam’s apple
aizurúa boca / boca / mouth
ajang espírito, demônio / espiritu, demonio / spirit, demon
akana, aiaká cabeça (lit. cabeça-osso) / cabeza / head [PTG33]
akazátzima cajá / esp. de fruta / a type of fruit
amána, amáua chuva, nuvem / lluvia, nube / rain, cloud [PTG54]
amanguari faca / cuchillo / knife
amuijo, ameneze algodão / algodón / cotton
-áña, airãha & dente / diente / tooth [PTG72]
anazara capitão / capitán / capitain
anerahi morcego / murciélago / bat
ara dia, céu, tempo / día, cielo, tiempo / day, sky, time [PTG74]
ara sol / sol / sun [Swa074]
araróboe arara azul / guacamayo azul / blue macaw
arená tosse / tos / cough
arendegá saliva / saliva / saliva
areó-há carne / carne / meat
areróga casa / casa / house [Swa095]
areubozason fezes / excremento / excrement
arevorione pacu / esp. de pescado / a type of fish
asãm espirrar (onomatop.) / estornudar / to sneeze
asíwe ombro / hombro / shoulder
auará cachorro / perro / dog
au-hi-ho palidez / palidez / paleness
aui-ho terra / tierra / earth
áva, aiáva cabelo / cabello, pelo / hair [PTG34]
avasia milho / maíz / corn
azivá homem / hombre / man
azurua porta / puerta / door
bekaua pomba / paloma / dove
bira roupa / ropa / clothes
bósa cobra / culebra / snake, cobra
bosua-uá sucuri / esp. de culebra / a variety of snake
buritivá buriti / esp. de palmera / a type of palm tree
buza animal / animal / animal, beast
direbiganiaroin inchação / hinchazón / swelling
dziarounitzon são / sano / healthy
ega casa / casa / house [Swa095]
eiró-hia frio / frío / cold
etumakanga perna, canela / pierna / leg
etumãna perna / pierna / leg [PTG167]
heápapora-he remador / remador / rower
hearápetá piloto / piloto / pilot
he-há água / água / water [PTG4]
he-hai suor, sudor / sweat
he-he-poá cipó / cipó, achiote / liana
hivága céu / ciélo / sky
hone preto / negro / black
hun-heá-heso doce / dulce / sweet
ibeterá colina, monte / monte / hill, mount
ibirapóra arco / arco / bow [PTG15]
ibóga carvão / carbón / charcoal
ikaroára doente / enfermo / sick
ikwává córrego / arroyo / ravine
imandaraive bravo / bravo / brave
inatá-hi anajá / esp. de palmera / a type of palm tree
iñáterá flor / flor / flower
ipã-ua ilha / isla / island
ipéa casca / cascara / bark
ipega marreco, pato / pato, duck
ipirapezo vermelho / rojo / red
itá pedra / pedra / stone
itapoga homem branco / hombre blanco / white man
itapotaña anzol / anzuelo / fishhook
iuaron-un-djizon bom / bueno / good
ivá fruta / fruta / fruit
ivápoá raiz / raíz / root
jahu jaú / esp. de ave / a type of bird
jakaré jacaré / yacare / alligator [PTG107]
ká-há folha / hoja / leaf
kanáná banco / banca / seat
kanera-isá panela / cazuela / cooking pot
kanindé arara vermelha / guacamayo rojo / red macaw
kará cará / esp. de raiz / variety of root
karivá branco / blanco / white
kauentazá cachaça / aguardiente / a kind o sugar cane drink
kauerá manso / manso / tame
kaya macaco / mono / monkey, ape
koãdua gavião / gavilán / hawk
koaiváterai pouco / poco / few
koaivete cinco / cinco / five
komandaia feijão / frijól / bean
kuñá mulher / mujer / woman
kunumi criança / niño / child
makoin-háto quatro / cuatro / four
mani-hama janela / ventana / window
mate alimentos / alimentos / food
men-ha-heá planta / planta / plant
meterepenára médio / medio / middle
mimbo-há linha / linea / thread
moapei tres / tres / three
mo-há-há remédio / remedio / medicine, drug
mokoedzipotari dois / dos / two
mutum mutum, esp. de ave / esp. de ave / variety of bird
ñá castanha / castaña / chestnut
ñakúpemba jacu / yacu / jacu bird
ñambúa inambu, nambu / esp. de ave / variety of bird
ñamosin galinha / gallina / hen
ñandiraré pai / padre / father
ñantchi-hun carapanã / esp. de mosquito / variety of mosquito
napusá rim / riñon / kidney
nin-aroin-run-pezon mau / malo / bad
ñiro manso / manso / tame
ñuná campo / campo / field
oiba flecha / frecha / arrow
ókeise medroso / medroso / fearful
orená-há-há junta (do corpo), articulação / aticulación / articulation, joint
ove verde / verde / green
pajé xamã / shamã / shaman
paková banana / banano, plátano / banana
panamá borboleta / mariposa / butterfly
petama fumo / humo / smoke
pikeria peixe / pescado / fish
pinudzin-há esteira / estera / mat
piruru-há ferida / herida / wound
piun pium /. esp. de mosquito / a variety of mosquito
raue febre / fiebre / fever
takumã-uá tucum / esp. de palmera tucuman / a type of palm tree
takuvá sangue / sangre / blood
tamanduá tamanduá / oso hormiguero / anteater
tapa-há-ho-huegeuvá borracha / caucho / rubber
tapira anta / danta, tapir / tapir, anta [PTG11]
tatá fogo / fuego / fire [PTG91], [Swa026]
chin-hu-huinte amarelo / amarillo / yellow [PTG7d], [Swa092]
timbó timbó / esp. de veneno para pescar / variety of poison to fish
tirebeká-hé barriga / vientre / belly [Swa004]
tupã espingarda / espingarda / rifle
tupava rede / hamaca / hammoc
uiá farinha d’água / harina de agua / water flour
urazáó jacamim / esp. de árbol / variety of tree
urukureaya coruja / lechuza / owl
zá-he lua / luna / moon
zanária gato / gato / cat
zá-tá-tá-he estrela / estrella / star
zatavoga carrapato / garrapatas / tick
zauára onça, tigre / onza, tigre / ounce, tiger
zavaipiaserá espelho / espejo / mirror
zavásenpiá ovo de tracajá / huevo de tortuga / turtle egg
zavásia tracajá / tortuga / turtle
zaveoera arraia / raya / ray (fish)
ziea mãe / madre / mother
zikepeherakaná irmã / hermana / sister
zutanvá jatobá / esp. de árbol / variety of tree
zuzová-hi açaí / esp. de palmera / a type of palm tree

Asuriní do Xingu
Fonte: Citado por RODRIGUES, Aryon, D; NICHOLSON, Vera (ILV); HARRISON, Carl H (ILV). ILV: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kayabi-Arawete (V): Braz. ASURINI, XINGU. ASN. Sinonímia: Asurini do Coatinema, Awaeté

a’e ele, aquele / él, aquello / he, that one [PTG77]
a’e, o-, ga-/i- ele, ela / él, ella / he, she, it
aijoroa papagaio / loro / parrot [PTG156]
áimbe agudo, afiado, cortante, amolar / cortante / sharp [PTG3]
aka casa / casa / house [PTG41]
aka estar / estar / to be
akaite, eta todos / todos / all
akapehawa pena do peito / pluma del pecho / chest feather
akarai’i branco, homem branco / hombre blanco / whiteman
akete casa grande / casa larga / large house
akotyjap ferrinho (uma ferramenta) / hierritto (una herramienta) / little iron (a tool)
akotym, oakotym fechar / cerrar / to close
akwaripe fora de casa / fuera de casa / out of house
akyng cabeça / cabeza / head [PTG33]
akynga esteio / sostén / prop
amo, amote outro / outro / other [PTG5]
amote-ramo outro dia, mais tarde / outro día, más tarde / other day, later [PTG5d]
amyna chuva / lluvia / rain [PTG54]
amyna okyt chover, estar chovendo / llover / to rain
amyniju algodão / algodón / cotton
amynime inverno / invierno / winter
amyniwaka nuvem / nube / cloud
‘ap deitar / acostar / to lie [PTG71]
-apa &nbbsp; coisa / cosa / thing
apa, oapa fazer / hacer / to do, to make
ape costas / espaldas / back [PTG65]
apekyty-pan semente preta / semilla negra / black seed
apekyty-pirã semente vermelha / semilla roja / red seed
apy queimar / quemar / to burn [PTG177]
apyah ouvido interno / oído interno / inner ear
apyk sentar / sentar / to sit [PTG194]
apytši, oapytši amarrar, atar / amarrar, atar / to tie [PTG8]
apytši, o-, tši, otši amarrado com corda / atado com cuerda / tied with rope
ara dia / día / day [PTG74]
arak, oarak rasgar / rasgar, romper / to tear
arakuri galinha / gallina / hen
arakurundi, arakurun cesta (tecido), sacola / alforja (tela) / wallet
arapoha, arapoa veado / venado / deer
arara arara / guacamayo / macaw
araraba pixuna, o povo / el pueblo pixuna / Pixuna people
árimo amanhã / mañana / tomorrow
-árimo & sobre, por cima / sobre / upon
arire depois, mais tarde / después, más tarde / after, later
aro, oaro esperar / esperar / to wait
‘at, o’at, (o)anda cair / caer / to fall [PTG35]
ata, oata andar / andar / to walk [PTG10]
ata, oata caçar, andar / cazar, andar / to hunt, to walk [PTG10], [Swa084]
-aty &nbbsp; força, com / con fuerza / with strenght
áty duro / duro / hard
atýwi, natýwi não, não tem / no, no tiene / no, not, there is not
ava quem / quien / who
awa cabelo / cabello, pelo / hair [PTG34]
awatši milho / maíz / corn [PTG128]
awatši’i, djopypygi arroz / arroz / rice
awera barriga / vientre / belly [Swa004]
-awyra & casa / casa / house [Swa095]
baija, batšai’i macaco guariba / esp. de mono / variety of monkey
baija’y macaco, esp. de / esp. de mono / variety of monkey
djabo sapo, esp. de / esp. de sapo / variety of toad
djahytyta estrela / estrella / star [PTG83]
djandeko’em cumprimento, saudação / saludos / compliment, greeting
djapehé forno de harina / horno de harina / flour oven
djapya, odjapyaka pensar / pensar / to think
djapyaka escutar, pensar / escuchar, pensar / to listen
dja’wara cachorro / perro / dog [PTG148d]
dja’wara onça, cachorro / onza, perro / tiger, dog [PTG148]
djawara-pinima onça pintada / tipo de onza / variety of ounce
dja’yp castanheira / esp. de castaño / variety of chesnut-tree
dje, a-, dje- eu / yo / I, me [PTG84]
djembarai, o- brincar / jugar / to play [PTG31]
djeope para mim / para mi / to me
djerenonde em frente de mim / en mi frente / in my front
djereviri atrás de mim / atrás de mi / behind me
djoka matar / matar / to kill [PTG124]
djotaik breu / brea / pitch
djú’ facão / machete / large knife
djuh espinho / espina / thorn
djujuwa, djudjup madeira, esp. de / esp. de madera / variety of wood
djukohy garapa, caldo de cana / jugo de caña / variety of cane jug
djy machado / hacha / axe [PTG117]
djy’i faca / cuchillo / knife [PTG85]
djywyt voltar / volver / to come back
djywytara laço no braço / afeite para el brazo
dymatý crescer / crecer / to grow
eha olho / ojo / eye [PTG147]
ehira mel, açucar / miel, azucar / honney, sugar
ende tu / tú / you (2.p.) [PTG218]
ende oreata pyaika despedida, você vai / adiós, despedida / farewell
ende, ere-, ende- você / usted / you (s.)
endop ouvir, escutar / oir / to listen [PTG151]
endy saliva / saliva / spittle [PTG189]
enoi, oenoi chamar / llamar / to call
enonde em frente de / en frente / in front
eovi ali, está / está allí / is there
eovi, áwamo aí / ahí / there
eraha, oeraha levar / llevar / to carry
eráka ter / ter / to have
‘erekira irmã maior / hermana mayor / older sister
erut, oerut trazer / traer / to bring
esak ver, conhecer / ver / to see [PTG208]
etá, akaite muitos / muchos / many [PTG134]
-ete &nbbsp; força, com muita / com mucha fuerza / with big strength
-ete, eta &nbssp; muito, grande / mucho, grande / much, big
eton cheirar / oler / to smell [PTG50]
etyk, oetyk deixar / dejar / to leave
eviri atrás de / atrás de / behind of
ewira, evira tiras de casca / tira de cascara
ewó’i verme, minhoca / gusano / worm [PTG210]
foapé dedo / dedo / finger [PTG70]
g-a dele / de él / his
gapoãpe, foapé unha, garra / uña / fingernail [PTG206]
há, aha ir / ir / to go [PTG106]
hahy dor / dolor / pain
haity, aity ninho / nido / nestle
hak, ohak pisar / pisar / to step on
hakow, hakop quente / caliente / hot [PTG178]
hatši chifre, ponta / cuerno, punta / horn, point [PTG51]
há’ýpa, há’yn semente / semilla / seed
he’e cheiroso, bom /oloroso, bueno / odorous, good
hehe, -rehe em, sobre, atrás de / en, sobre, atras de / in, upon, behind of
hera nome / nombre / name [PTG141]
-hi &nbssp; de / de / of
hy mãe (m), irmã da mãe (im) / madre, hermana de la madre / mother, mother’s sister
hyra cavadeira (para plantar milho)
i’a, ywyra’a fruta / fruta / fruit
iaivera estragado, não presta mais / roto / broken
iakym molhado / mojado / wet [PTG129]
iapehe panela de barro para torrar farinha
iapen’i forno de ferro pequeno / pequeño horno de hierro / small iron oven
iapepa’i, tapenbera pote de barro / pote de barro / clay jar
iápe-pirijyn pintar as costas / pintar la espalda / paint the back
ifotýra, ipotyryng flor / flor / flower [PTG90]
ijara dono / dueño / boss
ijokyra verde / verde / green [PTG188]
ijókyra amarelo, verde / amarillo, verde / yellow, green
ikwat furado / agujereado / pierced
ikwatšára, ikwatšat pote, panela de barro / pote / pot
iparatyh forte / fuerte / strong
ipira peixe / pez, pescado / fish [PTG164]
ipira-pyykáwa rede de pesca / red para pescar / fish net
ipohoi pesado / pesado / heavy [PTG168]
ipoko / ipokoite longe / lejos / far
ipyajei meia-noite / media noche / midnight
ipyteripe no meio de / nel médio de / in the middle
ipytonoho, karu(a) noite / noche / night [PTG139]
iroma’e três / tres / three
iro’y, rowyng, irowyng frio / frío / cold [PTG93]
ita pedra / piedra / stone [PTG161]
itaky pedra de amolar / piedra de afilar / sharpen stone
itáwa pote, panela de barro / pote / potityamihawa espremedor de madeira
itywyn seco / seco / dry
i’yaho novo, nova / nuevo, nueva / new
iymynera, -myna velho / viejo / old
i’ynga imagem, foto / image, foto / image, photo
jakywyta assim / así / so
jande, tša-, jande- nós (inclus.) / nosotros (inclus.) / we (inclus.) [PTG143]
jaok tomar banho / bañar / to bath
japehen forno de ferro grande / grande horno de hierro / large iron oven
jarokyng caibro / cabrio / rafter, tie beam
jawapewi, jawapevi lontra / nutria / otter
jeayp esfregar os olhos / esfregar los ojos / to rub (eyes)
je’eng, oje’eng falar / hablar / to speak [PTG86]
je’engaty, oje’engaty brigar / luchar / to fight
jekyi, mano morrer / morir / to die
jonopyng, ojonopyng bater-se uns nos outros
jora pescoço / pescuezo, cuello / neck [PTG169]
joro boca / boca / mouth [PTG27]
jorowak bocejar / bostezar / to yawn
jy’a coração / corazón / heart
jyp, ojyp descer / bajar / to go down
kaa roça / roza, chacra / plantation
ka’a folha / hoja / leaf
ka’a mata, país / bosque / forest
ka’api ‘i capim, grama / capin / grass
kabu mamar / mamar / to suck
kai queimar / quemar / to burn [PTG176]
ka’i macaco / mono / ape, monkey [PTG116]
kanawa joelho / rodilla / knee
kanindé arara azul, canindé / esp. de guacamayo azul / variety of blue macaw
kani’o cansado / cansado / tired
ka-ramo aqui (sente-se) / aquí (sentate) / here (sit down)
ka-rehe logo, agora / luego, ahora / soon, now
karoharohu paca / paca / paca, spotted cavy
karukame ontem / ayer / yesterday
kato, ikato bonito / bonito / beautiful
kato, ikato, katoete bom / bueno / good [PTG29]
-katy &nnbsp; por aqui, para cá / por aquí / by here, to here
kawyhara canoa / canoa / canoe
kit dormir / dormir / to sleep [PTG76]
ko língua / lengua / tongue [PTG112]
ko’em despedida, até amanhã / despedida hasta mañana / farewell, see you later
ko’em manhã cedo / temprano por la mañana / early in the morning
kohap, okohap saber / saber / to know [PTG187]
kohawyým, okohawyým ignorar, não saber / no saber / to unknow
konomi criança / niño / child
konomi menino / niño / young boy [PTG127]
kopi cupim / comején / termite
korema cipó fino / esp. de achiote / variety of liana
koruk urinar / orinar / to urinate
kotok picar, furar / huecar / to bore [PTG97]
kotši’o macaco coxiu / esp. de mono / variety of monkey
kuja cuia / calabazo / calabash
kujama’e, koimara homem / hombre / man
kuñyn, mirika mulher / mujer / woman
kup doente, com calor / enfermo, caliente / sick, hot
kwandu, okwanorang gavião / gavilán / hawk
kwarahy sol / sol / sun [PTG195], [Swa074]
kwara-jýajéih meio-dia / medio-día / noon
kwarapap, kwarapam pôr-do-sol / poner del sol / sundown
kwaripe verão / verano / summer
kwoipyáwa colher grande de madeira / cuchara larga de madera / large wooden spoon
ky’e, kyhe faca grande / cuchillo largo / large knife
-kyng &nnbsp; osso, caveira / hueso, calavera / bone, skull [PTG150]
kypy’yra, ikypy’yra irmã menor / hermana menor / younger sister
kytyk, okytyk raspar, esfregar / raspar / to scrape, to rub [PTG79]
kywa piolho / piojo / louse [PTG171], [Swa045]
ky’wawa pente / peine / comb
kywyra irmão (I), filho da irmã da mãe (Fim) / hermano, hijo de la hermana de la madre / brother, son of de mother’s sister
kyyje, okyyje temer, ter medo / temer / to fear [PTG200]
ma’e pe que é? / que és? / what is it?
mama’ea’a, ma’eta’a carne / carne / meat, flesh
mamat, omamat atirar, jogar / arrojar / to throw [PTG109]
mamat, omamat jogar / arrojar / to throw
mana, o-, mut, omut dar / dar / to give
manahak, manak cortar / cortar / to cut
manakore moquém, defumado / ahumado / smoked
mani’ak, mani’akáwa mandioca / yuca / manioc [PTG120]
mani’akundi muda de mandioca, ramos para plantar
mani’apýwa mandioca para farinha / yuca para harina / manioc for flour
mani’kapy’aka tapioca / esp. de yuca / variety of manioc
mani’ywa pé de mandioca / pié de yuca / manioc plant
maraka, omaraka cantar / cantar / to sing
marakajaryn gato / gato / cat
mbai’a cobra / culebra / snake [PTG 57]
meih mentir / mentir / to lie
membyra filho / hijo / son
miawa, biawa peneira grande de folha de palmeira
mirika esposa, mulher / esposa, mujer / wife [PTG135]
mo’aika, omo’aika estender / extender / to extend
mogyh sarar, passar / sanar / to cure
mohin lavar / lavar / to wash
mohynga remédio / remedio / medicine, drug
moi pe quando? / cuando? / when?
moiñepen um / uno / one [PTG205]
moite, awaite longe / lejos / far
mojapy’o acender fogo soprando / encender el fuego soplando / light fire blowing
moka’e, omoka’e moquear / ahumar / to smoke
mokañym, o- esquecer / olvidar / to forget
mokoi(ñe) dois / dos / two [PTG75]
mokon engolir / engullir / to swallow
mombyk, omombyk coser, costurar / costurar / to sew
mondyk, omondyk puxar / tirar / to pull
monep vestir-se / vestirse / to dress oneself
mongap, omongap peneirar / cernir / to sift
mongaro dar comida (para outro)
monyryk, omonyryk empurrar / empujar / to push
mopak, omopak atirar (com arma) / tirar / to fire
mopinim, omopinim escrever / escribir / to write
moreshakáwa espelho / espejo / mirror
moromombok furar (orelha, etc) / agujear / to pierce
moryngyta, o- conversar, falar / hablar, charlar / to speak, to talk
motywyn, omotywyn enxugar / enjugar / to dry
mo’ýra, mo’yrowyh colar (adereço) / collar / necklace
mujepewe sozinho / solo / alone
mun / omun coçar / rascar / to scratch
murushiguyým índio bravo / índigena bravo / brave indigenous
myi acordar-se / despertarse / to awake (refl.)
myryni magro / magro / thin
myryni sal / sale / salt
naimbei embotado, cega (a faca) / embotada (el cuchillo) / blunt (the knife)
nambi orelha / oreja / ear [PTG149]
nikatoi, ikato’yo mau / malo / bad
nodjeapari reto / recto / straight
nõija-nõija quatro / cuatro / four
nong, onong botar, deixar / poner, dejar / to put, to let
nopyng, onopyng bater / batir / to hit [PTG24]
nyh castanha do pará / nuez de brasil / brazilian nut
ñyn, oñyn correr / corrir / to run
o(h)yp limpar com pano / limpiar / to clean
o’ak arrancar, colher / tirar / to pull
odjeapat torcido, tortuoso / torcido / twisted
o’e brotar, nascer / brotar, germinar / to bud
o’en vomitar / vomitar / to vomit [PTG220]
ohã caranguejo / cangrejo / crab
ohei, oohei desejar, querer / desear / to desire
ohu, ohueté, ohuhu grande / grande / large
ohueté grosso / grueso / thick
ohy sangue / sangre / blood [PTG190]
o’i farinha / harina / flour
ojaro bravo / bravo / brave
okaro comer / comer / to eat [PTG59]
omawa animal doméstico / animal domestico / domestic animal [PTG26]
omo(ro)ngeta contar, relatar / relatar / to tell
omondyk assoprar o fogo / soplar el fuego / to blow the fire
o’o morder / morder / to bite [PTG130]
o’o, ‘o comer, fumar / comer, fumar / to eat, to smoke
opi’a ovo / huevo / egg [PTG152]
ore, oro-, ore- nós (exclus.) / nosotros (exclus.) / we (exclus.) [PTG142]
orokore’a coruja / lechuza / owl
o’ýwa flecha / frecha / arrow [PTG89]
pa mão / mano / hand [PTG121]
pakaranoh banana / banana, platano / banana
panám(a), panyma borboleta / mariposa / butterfly
pap, opap, opawete terminar, acabar / terminar / to finish
papel-mopinimawa lápis, caneta / lápiz / pencil, pen
papyng tremer (doente) / temblar (enfermo) / to flicker (sick)
papyng, opapyng cortar a mão / cortar la mano / cut hand
parany, yh rio / río / river [PTG185]
paraty andar rápido / andar ligero / walk fast
patši’up ralador para mandioca / rallador / grater
pátuá sacola, mala / maleta / suitcase
patu’ap cesta (palha), sacola / alforja (paja) / straw wallet
pe ali / allá / there
pe caminho, trilha / camino / trail, path [PTG36]
pe pergunta / pregunta / question
pe perto / cerca / close
-pe, -we p; para / para / to
pekine, penenu voltar / volver / to come back
pende, pe-, pende- vocês / usteds / you (pl.) [PTG219]
pepa asa / ala / wing [PTG17]
pepyn, opepyn descascar (mandioca) / descarcar (yuca) / to bark (manioc)
petym fumo, tabaco / tabaco / tobacco
petymara papel / papel / paper
pihim bicar / picotear / to peck
-pihon, -pion, pan & preto, negro, sujo / negro, sucio / black, dirty [PTG175]
pindawa, pinap palha / paja / straw
pion sujo / súcio / dirty
pipi poucos / pocos / few, little
pipi, pipipi pequeno / pequeño / small, little [Swa069]
-pirera ; pele retirada / piel sacada / removed skin [PTG165d]
pirijyn pintar / pintar / to paint
pirung, piryng, pirã vermelho / rojo / red [PTG212]
poãpe garra, unha de bicho / garra, uña / claw
poka, opoka rir / rir / to laugh
-poko, ipoko & comprido / largo / long [PTG61]
ponekwap, o- trocar / cambiar / to change
po’om ficar em pé / quedar en pié / to stand [PTG82]
porahai, oporahai dançar, dança / danzar, danza / to dance, dance
poretšak ver a festa, pessoal na festa
-poro-, moro- + verbo &nbssp; povo / pueblo / people
porojoka matar gente / matar una persona / to kill someone
potat, opotat desejo / deseo / desire
potšia peito / pecho / chest
puta ficar (objeto) / quedar (objecto) / to stay (object)
py pé / pié / foot [PTG160]
py’a fígado, estômago / higado, estómago / liver, stomach [PTG21]
pyak, opyak cortar casca de semente
pyapyra, pyapyt barriga / vientre / belly [Swa004]
pyhey, opyhei lavar / lavar / to wash [PTG111]
pyhyk(a) pegar, tirar foto / agarrar / to take [PTG13]
pyhyk, opyhyk apertar / apretar / to press
pyhyk, opyhyk pescar, pegar peixe / agarrar (pescado) / to take (fish), to fish [PTG13d]
pykwoi, opykwoi torrar farinha / assar harina / asar / to roast flour
pykwoi’ak, o- tirar a água (de buraco, etc.) / sacar la água / to draw out water
-pype &nnbsp; em, a / en / in, at
-pype, ipype, ipipe ; dentro de / adentro de / inside of [PTG1]
-pyri &nnbsp; com (instrumento) / con (instrumento) / with, with (tool)
pyropem peneira redonda / cedazo redondo / round sieve
pytohem, ipytohem respirar / respirar / to breathe [PTG184]
-pywo &nnbsp; com, com alguém / con, con alguién / with, with someone
pywyn, opywyn fiar / hilar / to spin
pywyrytšing cesta (palha), sacola / alforja (paja) / straw wallet
-ra’a &nnbsp; carne / carne / meat, flesh [PTG40]
-rambe & agora / ahora / now
rerakwara marido / marido / husband
roa pai / padre / father
romoijerep virar (canoa) / volver (canoa) / to turn (canoe)
ropeyi, ropehy com sono, eu / com sueño, yo /
-ropi &nnbsp; com / com / with
-rowaki ; perto de / cerca de / close of
ruwete alegre / alegre / gay
tajaho queixada, porco / cerdo, puerco / pig
tajahó queixada / taiaçu / sajino / hog
takamy’i limão / lemón / lemon
takup febre / fiebre / fever
támakýng, uwa perna / pierna / leg [PTG167]
tamunua tamanduá / oso hormiguero / anteater
tapi’ira anta / danta, tapir / tapir, anta [PTG11]
tapiro boi / buey / bull
tapokora laço na perna / afeite para la pierna
tata fogo / fuego / fire [PTG91], [Swa026]
tatapyayk, tapy’aíka lenha / leña / firewood
tatapyng cinzas / cenizas / ash
tatatšing fumaça / humo / smoke [PTG95] e [PTG30]
tatatšing nevoeiro / niebla / thick fog
tatawatši martim-pescador / esp. de ave / variety of bird
tendawa banco / banco / seat
tjimbara tosse / tos / cough
to ‘in periquito / perico / parakeet
tokoma’ywa tucumã / esp. de palmera / a variety of palm-tree
tokwan(a) tucano / tucán / toucan
topapyton rede pequena / hamaca pequeña / small hammock
topáwa rede / hamaca / hammock
topy relâmpago / relámpago / lightining
tororo, otororo esgotando, esvaziando / agotando / exhausting, to draining
tšawotši jabuti / esp. de tortuga / variety of turtle
tši nariz, bico / nariz, pico / nose, beak [PTG138]
tšing branco (cor) / blanco (color) / white (color) [PTG30]
tuku corda de arco / hilo del arco / bow’s thread
tupam, topam corda / cuerda / rope, cord, string [PTG62]
tuviap gordo / gordo / fat
tyami, otyami espremer / exprimir / to press out
ty’ara fome / hambre / hungry
tykot chupar / chupar / to suck [PTG53]
tym, otym plantar, enterrar / plantar / to plant
tynohem cheio / lleno / full
typy fundo / fondo / bottom
tyro pano, roupa / tejido, ropa / tissue, clothe
um me pe onde? / donde? / where?
-úrimo & em baixo de / abajo de / under
ut, urh vir / venir / to come [PTG215]
úwa coxa / mulso / thigh
uy, uwy pena / pluma / feather [PTG166]
uy-pepa, uwy-pepa pena de flecha / pluma de frecha / arrow feather
vevoi, ovevoi boiar / boyar / to float [PTG28]
wai rabo / cola / tail [PTG179]
wara, owara mexer, misturar (mingau) / mesclar (gachas) / to mix (gruel)
werap relampejar / relampear / to
wewe, veve, owewe voar / volar / to fly [PTG217]
wewoi, vevoi nadar, boiar / nadar, boyar / to swim, to float
wotši excretar / excretar / to excrete
wyra ave, pássaro / ave, pájaro / bird [PTG158]
wyra’y pato / pato / duck
y água / agua / water [PTG4]
yahy, djahy lua / luna / moon [PTG115]
yakare, djakaré jacaré / yacare / alligator [PTG107]
yh ombut tirar a água (de poço, etc.) / sacar la água (pozo) / to draw out water
yhára canoa / canoa / canoe [PTG38]
yja terra / tierra / earth, soil
ýja areia / arena / sand
ýja pó, poeira / polvo / dust
ymbera mão de pilão / mano de mortero / pestle hand
yngo’a pilão / mortero / pestle
ynja dente / diente / tooth [PTG72]
ynymba linha, fio / hilo / thread
ynymba’i linha fina / hilo delgado / thin thread
ynyn’e poço / pozo / well
y’o, oy’o beber / beber / to drink [PTG25]
yohei sede / sed / thirst
yto cachoeira, salto / cachivera / falls
ywak céu / cielo / sky [PTG47]
ywak onaryng trovão / trueno / thunder
ywapa raiz / raíz / root [PTG181]
‘ywó, o’ywó esfregar algum objeto / esfregar alguna cosa / to rub (things)
ywy terra / tierra / earth [PTG201]
ywykai, oywykai cavar / cavar / to dig [PTG44]
ywyra árvore, vara / árbol / tree [PTG16]
ywyra pau, vara / madera / stick [PTG159]
ywyra okai-pap queimar a roça / quemar la roza / burn to plant
ywyrapára arco / arco / bow [PTG15]
ywyra-pirera cortiça, casca de árvore / corteza / bark [PTG16d]
ywyra-potyra flor de árvore / flor de árbol / tree flower [PTG16d]
ywyri beira, margem / margen / bank, riverside
ywyto vento / viento / wind [PTG207]
ywytýra monte, colina / monte / hill, mount [PTG132]
yypa cipó grosso / esp. de achiote / variety of liana
zenipap jenipapo / esp. de fruta / variety of fruit

Ava – Canoeiro
Fonte: Citado por RODRIGUES, Aryon D.; MAGALHÃES, Couto – Viagem ao Araguaya (1957). ILV: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV): Braz. AVA-CANOEIRO. AVV. Obs c = ts. Parcialmente cedido por Renato Nicolai (veja link).

ay mãe / madre / mother
ajuruy papagaio / loro / parrot
akaré galinha / gallina / hen
áman chuva / lluvia / rain [PTG54]
aobá roupa / ropa / cloth
ará sol / sol / sun [Swa074] [PTG74]
avá canoeiro / canoero / boatman
avaxi milho / maíz / corn
avaxi min arroz / arroz / rice
baiagó mamão / papaya / papaya
bakané gente / gente / people
Cáy lua / luna / moon [PTG115]
Cywár, dgigua, jegrã machado / hacha / axe [PTG117d]
depó mão / mano / hand
depu pé / pié / foot
fe uchmã cabeça / cabeza / head
ig água / água / water [PTG4]
ikato bom / bueno / good
iprurá estar pejada / envergonzada / ashamed
it pruré enxada / azada / hoe
itá pedra / piedra / stone
ita kiCé faca / cuchillo / knife
itañaén tacho / budare / shallow, wide pot
jakó chorar / llorar / to cry
japruré foice / hoz / scythe
jateskwá taquara / tacuara / bamboo
joká telhado, cobertura, teto / tejada / roof
Juvaká Deus / Diós / God
kain macaco / mono / monkey
ker dormir / dormir / to sleep [PTG76]
koemun alvorada, madrugada / alba, madrugada / dawn, early morning
kolomy menino / niño / boy
koñatain menina / niña / girl
kuimbaé homem / hombre / man
kuimbahy guerreiro / guerrero / warrior
kumundá feijão / frijól / bean
kuñã moça / muchacha / girl
ma?eapar, maapary, manapary banana (coisa curvada) / banano, plátano / banana
mánióka mandioca / yuca / manioc [PTG120]
mbóya cobra / culebra / snake, cobra [PTG57]
óka casa / casa / house [PTG41]
opoká rir / reir / laugh
paranã córrego / arroyo / ravine
semikato bonito / bonito / beautiful
takré abóbora / zapayo / pumpkin
takwarean cana / caña / cane
tapira ete boi / buey / ox
tara xú porco / cerdo / pig
tekwary ruim / malo / bad
tigera palhada (roça velha) / roza antigua / old plantation
tsáwar cachorro / perro / dog [PTG148]
tsepéaw lenha / leña / firewood
uainvi mulher / mujer / woman
uasú veado / venado / deer
ui farinha / harina / flour
uvá flecha / frecha / arrow [PTG89]

Guajá
Fonte: CRUZ, Olimpio (1972); CUNHA, Pericles (1987); . ILV: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Oyampi (VIII): Braz. GUAJA. GUJ. Parcialmente cedido por Renato Nicolai (veja link).

a-, a-é eu / yo / I
-?á, o-á p; cair / caer / to fall
a-é sim / sí / yes
a-é-mé minha / mia / mine (fem.)
a-é-ohó dormir / dormir / to sleep
a-é-upeni quebrado / roto / broken
aezoikó pouco / poco / little, few
agunzá rato / ratón / mouse
ahí azedo / acedo / sour
ahí doer / doler / to pain
a?í sim / sí / yes
aiapó tudo / todo / all
a-ií preguiça / pereza (el animal) / sloth
aikíne garganta / garganta / throad
aikó este / éste / this
aká procurar / buscar / to look for
akã cabeça / cabeza / head
akuCi cutia / conejo montés / variety of rodent
aman-ró chuva / lluvia / rain
amé apagar / apagar / to put out, to erase
amen agudo, afiado, cortante / cortante / sharp [PTG3]
ameríkurí minhoca / lombriz de tierra / earthworm
amiCin amarrar, atar / amarrar, atar / to tie [PTG8]
amihin ter fome / tener hambre / to be hungry
amõ outro / otro / other [PTG5]
amukun língua / lengua / tongue [PTG112]
amutík pentear / peinar / to comb
anhím dor / dolor / ache
anirá morcego / murciélago / bat
aparapã bater / batir / to beat
apitá esp. de urubu / esp. de buitre / variety of vulture
apó fazer / hacer / make, do
?ará cabelo / cabello, pelo / hair
aramaya esp. de ave / esp. de ave / variety of bird
arapoá veado / venado / deer
arárakã esp. de arara / esp. de guacamayo / variety of macaw
arí dia / día / day
awá cara, rosto, homem / cara, rostro, hombre / face, man
awáy rabo / cola / tail
awehú sêr mítico / ser mítico / mythical being
awí atirar (e errar) / tira (y no acertar) / to shoot (and fail)
ayã demônio, anhanga / diablo / demon
azuruí jandaia / esp. de palmera / variety of palm tree
Cá ver / ver / to see
Capakáy galinha / gallina / hen
Capakáy-auén frango / pollo (masc.) / chicken (male)
Capakáy-imene galo / gallo / cock
Capakáy-kuyã-usu galinha / gallina / hen
Capakáy-kuyã franga / pollo (fem.) / chicken (fem.)
Capakáy-pitikaí pinto / pollo / chick
CiCipé esp. de fruta / esp. de fruta / variety of fruit
Cimó timbó / esp. de veneno para pescar / variety of poison to fish
Cun branco / blanco / white
ehaí lágrima / lágrima / tear
ehéi amargo amargo / bitter
ehók lagarta / gusano / worm
ehotsók atrás / atrás / behind
eituk queda / caída / fall
etsó hoje / hoy / today
euá-reiní lua luna / moon
ezeuíre suspender / colgar / to suspend
ezumã-zumanáu vestido / vestido / dressed
ezúre vem, ele / viene, él / comes
gem-em-nhó cantar / cantar / to sing
giepíp cerca de madeira / cercado de madera / wood fence
hãy dente / diente / tooth
ha?í vários / varios / a lot
ha?in caroço / carozo / stone (of fruit)
ha?i?in coçar / rascar / to scratch
hakwáy cavar / huecar / to hole
hakú quente / caliente / hot
hama?é é meu / és mio / it’s mine
hamãy grande / grande / large, big
ha?ó, ha?ókerá carne / carne / meat, flesh
hara?í calor / calor / heat
hatã duro / duro / hard
hawér folha / hoja / leaf
hehé lavar / lavar / to wash
he?en doce / dulce / sweet
hí, nehí mãe / madre / mother
hó ir / ir / to go
hokó, pirá-oháre socó / esp. de ave / variety of bird
huhú vomitar / vomitar / to vomit
ia fruta / fruta / fruit
iã coração / corazón / heart
iãim sovina / avaro / miserly
i?a?itã pomo de Adão / pomo de Adan / Adam’s apple
iaíu sujo, lixo / sucio, basura / dirty, garbage
iama-góng remar / remat / to row
iãmongó-íu canoa / canoa / canoe
iapokokáu bastão / bastón / stick
ihá eu / yo / I, me
ihá ver, enxergar / ver / to see
ihauháu alto / alto / high
ihin escorregadio / deslizante / smooth, slippery
i?in falar / hablar / to speak
iká matar / matar / to kill
ikã seco / seco / dry
ikíkuruhú áspero / áspero / rough
ikím molhar / mojar / to wet
ikitó caracol / caracol / periwinkle
ikó morar / morar / to live, to dwell
ikópá todos / todos / all
ikwa buraco / hueco / hole
ikwapáre anzol / anzuelo / fish hock
ikwen vivo / vivo / alive
imahí, yarun zangado / aburrido / angry
inkwene comprido / largo / longo
i-oháre boca / boca / mouth
iotangére nó / nodo / knot
ipáu lago / lago / lake
ipayã tornozelo / tobillo / ankle
ipókun polegar / pulgar / thumb
ipú lagoa / laguna / lagoon
i-puá roda / rueda / wheel
irahók bodoque / ballesta /slingshot
irámirí ave, passarinho / ave, pajarito / bird
irapikã pescoço / cuelo / neck
iratí cera / cera / wax
ire filho / hijo / son
íre, raíre abelha / abeja / bee
iró folha / hoja / leaf
itapéu pedra / piedra / stone
i?ú coxa / muslo / thigh
i?ú beber / beber / to drink
iuhék pulga / pulga / flea
iwá céu / cielo / sky
iwákawã buraco no céu / hueco nel cielo / hole in the sky
iwák-puchu mundo / mundo / world
iwák-tine, iwakun nuvem / nuben / cloud
iwakun nuvem / nube / cloud
iwatsu banana / banano, plátano / banana
iwatsuré bananeira / banano / banana tree
iwé ter sede / tener sed / to be thristy
iwé sapo, esp. de / esp. de sapo / variety of toad
jejáre meu / mi, mio / my, mine
ká marimbondo / avispa / wasp
ká, kirá gordura / grasa / fat [Swa024]
kã osso / hueso / bone
ka?á mato / selva / forest
kaCã cheiro forte, catinga, fedor / hedor / stink
kaehó-puére queimado / quemado / burnt
ka-í macaco / mono / monkey
kaieté macaco vermelho / tipo de mono rojo / variety of red monkey
kaihupehune macaco guariba / mono aullador, cutu / guariba monkey
kakará urubu / esp. de buitre / variety of vulture
kalukaluk urina / orina / urine
kalukaluk-kaí urina de macaco / orina de mono / monkey urine
kamã seio / seno breast
kamo peito / pecho / chest
kamu mamar / mamar / to suck
kangam cobra / culebra / snake
kangam-iperáre jacaré / yacare / alligator
kanõ cansado / cansado / tired
kapivarane anta / danta / tapir
kará cará / esp. de raiz / variety of root
karumé jabuti / esp. de tortuga / turtle
katú bom / bueno / good
káu maribondo / avispa / wasp
kã-ué forte / fuerte / strong
kauiré-í inambu, nambu / esp. de ave / variety of bird
káy queimar / quemar / to burn
kãy perder / perder / to lost
ké bambu / bambú / bamboo
kenáu) porta / puerta / door
keramu(hun) roncar / roncar / to snore
keré dormir / dormir / to sleep
kí piolho / piojo / louse [Swa045]
kiCín cortar / cortar / to cut [PTG64] ou [PTG85]
kiCu cuxiu, esp. de macaco / esp. de mono / variety of monkey
kiné medo / miedo / fear
kirá, ká gordura / grasa / fat [Swa024]
kirirú esp. de sapo / esp. de sapo / variety of toad
kisé faca /cuchillo / knife
kisé-usu facão / machete / large knife
kiti esfregar / halar, esfregar / to rub
kitu furar / agujear / make a hole
kiwá pente / peine / comb
kiyé temer, ter medo / temer / to fear
kozó moça / chica / girl
kozotaí menina / niña / girl
kumanahehá-une feijão / frijól / bean
kumanapéu fava / haba / broad
kupetsák espelho / espejo / mirror
wayã mulher, fêmea / hembra / female
kwarahó boa tarde / buena tarde / good afternoon
kwaraí sol / sol / sun [Swa074]
kwarére menino / niño / boy
kwaCiCi perto / cerca / close
kwoiti irmão / hermano / brother
ma?á o que? / qué ? / what ?
ma?iwapuá mamão / papaya / papaya
ma?iwá fruta / fruta / fruit
maká rir / reir / to laugh
maká espingarda / espingarda / rifle
makahí macaxeira / yuca / manioc
makwari maguari / esp. de garza / variety of heron
maná dar / dar / to give
manémihen ontem / ayer / yesterday
manioré mandioca / yuca / manioc
manõ morrer / morir / to die
manunmanun trabalhar / trabajar / to work
manzank alma / alma / soul
mapó disparar, atirar / disparar, tirar / to throw
matarahun turvo / turvio / clouded
me?en acordar / despertar / to awake
mén esposo, marido / esposo, marido / husband
menjáre teu / tuyo / your
meru-í-ru-í mosquito / mosquito / mosquito
meték bater / batir / to beat
miCí, repuCi fezes, excremento / excremento / excrement
mimír filho / hijo / son
minharé caçador / cazador / hunter
miní acender / encender / to light
minun coito / coito / coition
mirá árvore / árbol / tree [PTG16], [Swa082]
mirin pequeno / pequeño / small, little [Swa069]
mirikó mulher, esposa / mujer / woman
mití respirar / respirar / to breath
mití fumo / tabaco / tobacco [PTG96]
mitin puxar / tirar / to pull
mití flor / flor / flower [PTG90]
mitun mutum, esp. de ave / esp. de ave / variety of bird
momo?un contar, dizer / contar, relatar / to tell
momun atirar / tirar / to throw
mon-non morte / muerte / death
muhúy sonho / sueño / dream
mukurí mucuri, esp. de árvore / esp. de árbol / variety of tree
nã-ã não / no / no, non
naé alegre / alegre / happy
na-é nada / nada / nothing
naié-pé onde / donde / where
nakwa?ã não sei / no sé / I dont know
namí orelha oreja / ear
ne-ko dedo / dedo / finger
nem-aué cabelo / cabello / hair
neru-í mosca / mosca / fly
netíti beija-flor / pica-flor / humming-bird
nezaritsé vovó / abuelita / grandmom
niramúi vovô / abuelito / granddady
nun ouvir, escutar / oír / to hear, to listen
o- ele / él, ello / he, it
oatáre andar / andar / to walk [PTG10]
o-áu-áre fraco / flaco / weak
ohék grito / grito / cry
ohoé adeus / adiós / good-bye
ohotere viajar / viajar / to travel
o-pi-á ovo / huevo / egg
orokúre saracura esp. de ave / variety of bird
orú, iuehé barriga / vientre / belly [Swa004]
pa?ã ficar em pé / quedar-se de pié / to stay up
pahé panela / cazuela / cooking pot
pakó banana / banano, plátano / banana
pakú pacú / esp. de pescado / variety of fish
panã, panaré borboleta / mariposa / butterfly
panarane mariposa / mariposa / moth
papó asa / ala / wing [PTG17]
paraparáu paca / paca / paca, spotted cavy
parã bonito / bonito / beautiful
parawã umbigo / ombligo / navel
parúhú grávida / encintada / pregnant
pé caminho / camino / road
peahu novo / nuevo / new
pe-é-íu raiva / rabia / anger
pehí-pehí casamento / matrimonio / wedding
peipei varrer / barrer / to sweep
pekatazá surdo / sordo / deaf
peku-irane juriti / esp. de paloma / variety of small dove
pépé longe / lejos / far away
peték surrar, bater / zurrar, bater / to beat
peuehemo amanhã / mañana / tomorrow
pí picar, furar / huecar / to bore
pí soprar / soplar / to blow
pí pé / pié / foot
pí pegar, segurar / agarrar / to take, to catch, to hold [PTG13]
piá, upíre subir / subir / to go up
piCí pequeno / pequeño / small, little [Swa069]
pihun preto / negro / black
pi-í diabo / diablo / devil
pi?ír colar / collar / necklace
piná anzol / anzuelo / fish hock
pió abrir / abrir / to open
pipí afundar / ahondar / to sink
pipinin bater (com o pé) / batir (con el pié) / to knock (with the foot)
pirá peixe / pescado / fish
pirã vermelho / rojo / red
piráiká pescar (lit. peixe-matar) / pescar / to fish
piré pele / piel / skin
pirí calor / calor / heat
pi?un pium, mosquito / mosquito / mosquito, gnat
píy (< piiy) pesado / pesado / heavy [PTG168] pó mão / mano / hand pohã remédio / remedio / medicine, drug popó pular / saltar / to jump popó asa / ala / wing [PTG17] popo?ó depenar / desplumar / to deplume pororó trovão / trueno / thunder pu pé / pié / foot pú furar / huecar / to hole puepé unha / uña / nail puk sentar / sentar / to sit pukpé sardinha / esp. de pescado / variety of river fish pukú comprido / largo / long punun peidar / pedar / to fart pupú coruja / buho / owl putáre quero / quiero / want (I) puthé-monrái nariz / nariz / nose putí-puti carvão / carbón / charcoal rahó levar / llevar / to carry rã-íre mel de abelha / miél de abeja / honney bee raité bravo / bravo / brave ramõ agora / ahora / now rapuikó testa / testa / forehead razíu queixo / quijada / chin ré-é-ahí salgado / salado / salted rekwene brejo / brezal / swamp retekére inteiro / entero / whole retkwére corpo / cuerpo / body ripí por / por / by rirí tremer / temblar / to flicker ro-hok vomitar / gomitar / to vomit roi dente / diente / tooth rong-rong bonito / bonito / beautiful ropép adiante / adelante / ahead rú trazer / traer / to bring rurú inchado / hinchado / be swollen sapé casa / casa / house [Swa095] segé-nae-pea mau / malo / bad siro calça / pantalon / pants tageapá foice / hoz / scythe takamã tucum, coco / tucuman, esp. de coco / variety of coconut takapin esp. de ave / esp. de ave / variety of bird takí faca / cuchillo / knife takwarenu buzina, inúbia bucina / hooter tamã, tawã perna / pierna / leg [PTG167] tamanu?á tamaduá / oso hormiguero / anteater tapá secar, seco (rio) / secar / to dry tapã trovão / trueno / thunder tapãurá relâmpago / relámpago / lightining tapirãre boi / buey / ox tatá fogo / fuego / fire [PTG91], [Swa026] tatáCin fumaça / humo / smoke [PTG91d] tatapá cinza / ceniza / ash tazí machado / hacha / axe temiú, u-u comer / comer / to eat temi-u-í-apikáu estômago / estómago / stomach [Swa004] tenetehára índio / índio / indian, native american teyú queixada / puerco salvage / collared peccary tí atirar / tirar / to throw tekwí fibra de tucum / fibra de tucum / tucum fiber tikwí caldo / jugo / jug timiré cemitério / cementério / cemitery timunilík porco / cerdo, puerco / pig tinik magro / magro / thin tipuku tamanduá / oso hormiguero / anteater tititiró feio / feo / ugly tiumurére mordido / mordido / bited tok-tók aldeia / aldea / village tongo-oró grosso / grueso / thick traiane tatu / armadilho / armadillo tramã farinha / harina / flour tsák ver / ver / to see tsirane gado / ganado / cattle tsú espinho / espina / thorn tsurumutí beijo / beso / kiss tú, rúa pai / padre / father tun cheirar / olfatear / to smell [PTG50] tukã tucano / tucán / toucan tukúr gafanhoto / saltamontes / grasshoper Tupã Deus / Diós / God tupã-ré chefe / jefe / chief txé-i-txé-i estrela / estrella / star uahu babaçu / esp. de palmera / variety of palm uaite tio / tío / uncle uang-unág torto / tuerto / twisted uaré homem / hombre / man u?í flecha / flecha / arrow uirá ikére puópuame coração / corazón / heart uirá madeira / madera / wood uira-ràpó raiz / raíz / root uirareté cana-de-açúcar / caña de azucar / sugar cane uirá-timó-timó facho, tocha / antorcha / torch uiukwé rio / río / river u-ní escuro / oscuro / dark u-ní noite / noche / night u-nu negro / negro / black uonóng tiro / tiro / shot, firing urú urubu / buitre / vulture uruío balaio / balay / hamper usu, ihu grande / grande / large utau-é aleijado / lisiado / crippled u?ú comer / comer / to eat u?ú-ete gosto / sabor / taste u?ú-pé gostar / gustar / to like vivine canário / canario / canary waCí milho / maíz / corn wamihã homem / hombre / man warapapá arapapa, esp. de ave / esp. de ave / variety of bird warí macaco guariba / mono aullador, cutu / guariba monkey warun esperar / esperar / to wait watá andar / andar / to walk [PTG10], [Swa084] waté cima / cima / top wayã mulher / mujer / woman wewé voar / volar / to fly wí cozinhar / cocinar / to cook wí terra / tierra / earth wihen semente / semilla / seed wirá pau / palo / stick [PTG16], [Swa082] wirarã esp. de ave / esp. de ave / variety of bird witá, itá pedra / piedra / stone witéiró folha de jatobazinho / esp. de hoja / variety of leaf witú vento / viento / wind wiwí leve / leve / light [PTG28] yá abrir a flor / abrir la flor / open the flower yã cantar / cantar / to sing yaCi ombro / espalda / shoulder yaCi espirrar / estornudar / to sneeze yakaré jacaré / cayman / alligator yakarérã camaleão / camaleón / chameleon yakú jacú / esp. de ave / variety of bird yané nós (incl.) / nosotros (incl.) / we (incl.) yanun aranha / araña / spider yanun, imahí zangado / aburrido / angry yanupá jenipapo / esp. de fruta / variety of fruit yapewá ouvido / oído / ear yapohú redondo / redondo / round yapopó panela / cazuela / cooking pot yarõ bravo / bravo / brave yaté muito / mucho / much, lots yatú sujo / súcio / dirty yawací jabuti / yabuti / variety of turtle yawá(r) cachorro / perro / dog yawawí axila / axila / armpit yáyó soluçar / sollozar / to whimperer yáyú fruta madura / fruta madura / ripe fruit yeyú peixe, esp. de / esp. de pescado / variety of fish yú amarelo / amarillo / yellow [PTG7], [Swa092] zahakitsé banhar / bañar / to bath zãiuní bem-te-vi / esp. de ave / variety of bird zapiáu tesoura / tijera / scissors zati-u morder / morder / to bite zawakarane gato / gato / cat zawaurúro onça, tigre / onza, tigre / ounce, tiger zekweri-róng rede / hamaca / hammock zemongong cuspe / escupido / spittle zeng bom dia / buen día / good morning zeviá sabiá / tipo de pássaro / variety of bird ziapapáre intestino / intestino / intestine zihí-ipehú enxada / azada / hoe zua-momóre nadar / nadar / to swim zuetí bigode / bigote / moustache zu-í sapo / sapo / toad zukira sal / sal / salt zupuhúk receber / recibir / to receive

Interview: Yanomami Shaman

Interview + Photograph by Allan Spiegel

The Yanomami live in the northern Amazon along the Brazil/Venezuela border. They are 20,000 strong, about half on each side of the border. This makes them the largest nation in the Americas that is semi-isolated and thus relatively unchanged by contact with our culture. At a picnic in Central Park’s Sheep Meadow, Davi Kopenawa Yanomami spoke to me about the role of play in his culture. Davi is a shaman from Brazil where his people live in 36,000 square miles of virgin rain forest that legally belongs to their nation. He was in New York for Amazon Week VI, an Transparent Inflatable Commercial Tent For Sale international conference sponsored by Amanaka’a Amazon Network each May. (The interview took place with the help of an interpreter who translated Davi’s Portuguese into English. This accounts for someof the awkwardness of the phrasing.)

Allan: In our culture a lot of times when we get older we forget how to play, we get so busy with work that we lose the child inside of ourselves… In Yanomami culture do grown-ups play, and how?
Davi: When we want to do a big party we call about five tribes to get together and we eat a lot… We don’t eat like this, a little bit, right? We like to eat a lot… and when we sing, we don’t use flutes or any other instrument, we just sing. When we’re working, or when we’re walking we sing all the time in our hearts. The only time we don’t sing is when we die but when we’re alive we never forget to sing. We’re working, we’re walking, we’re always singing, we never forget to sing. The whites forget that. They always worry about working, working, working… and they don’t sing. The only time they remember to sing and celebrate is when they listen to music, put on the radio, or put the walkman on.

Allan: What are the occasions that give rise to these celebrations when the villages get together?
Davi: We gather together to talk about what we’re going to plan and how we’re going to preserve the river and not kill the fish, how we can put out the message to the other tribes. The history of the Yanomami is very wise. The Yanomami are not rich but they are very rich in knowledge, in the knowledge of nature.

Allan: So besides the singing, what types of everyday play do you engage in? Besides the celebrations?
Davi: We talk to each other, we fish, we catch food… and we pray to our God, our Creator.
Allan: But that’s what we would call work. When you’re relaxing and you want to enjoy yourselves after the hunt or…
Davi: We put a hammock on the trees and just relax there… We have the Chief and everybody else is in silence after hunting and he’s the only one that talks. He tells his stories and everybody loves to hear it… and they learn from the stories, he teaches through the stories and everybody is attentive listening to what he has to say… Also, the women start singing at 7 o’clock at night until 5 in the morning, slow night singing [laughs].

Allan: And do you play any games?
Davi: We have a game called Shamanism. You need 4 people to play. You take the milk from the trees, the rubber and make powder of that and smell it and get high and see everything through the forest. It’s part of the game. It’s from the rubber tree. Only the men do that, no women or children do this, only the ones that are prepared. We start singing when we take it. It’s the game of the energy, of the forest, of the mountains, of the sun, of the moon… This game, it’s a secret. No white people watch this, otherwise they would take it from us. It’s a really nice game and they’re going to take it so we don’t show it… When we go to the city, we don’t do that. Only when we’re together. It’s a tradition of the forest.

Allan: So what do the women play?
Davi: They sing. They sing to attract happiness, that’s why they sing. And the men, they stay quiet to listen.
Allan: No physical games?
Davi: You know that game with the rope?
Allan: Tug of war?
Davi: That’s what we do. And we take it from the tree.
Allan: …the vines…
Davi: No one wins prizes or anything. The best has to win, that’s all. There will be 100 Indians on one side and 100 Indians on the other side. We take the strongest Indians in the tribe and just pull. I don’t want to teach the whites all these games, or they’re going to take it from us. I can teach them how to preserve nature, how to keep trees. That’s the only thing I teach.

Allan: What was the last celebration you attended?
Davi: We did a party last February. We were celebrating the birth of the Earth. How it was started, how it was created, how nature came about. This was our last celebration.
Allan: Kind of like Earth day!
Davi: We also remember a God, the Coyore insect. We remember the Coyore insect because it taught us how to plant, which fruits and which vegetables to plant.

Allan: The current situation, with people dying, is very hard. What do you do to relieve the stress?
Davi: I don’t have an outlet. I just try to change the way they think, the ones who go in there to take the gold from the farmers. I never get tired from stress, I just fight. I came with a message from my relatives and I want the message to be out there. I want to stop the fight between the Indian and the white man. I don’t want the miners going into our tribes. We just want to be left alone. You can see here, the white people all have their houses and their buildings, their money. They want to go over to where we are and take our gold. We just want to be left alone. I want to go off with the miners to take care of them, give them their own land so they don’t destroy ours, because they take their money to buy everything to destroy our land. I want to be left alone. I want to end the fight.

The Yanomami remember what we sometimes forget: to sing every day. Only death ends the song. Today, their death is most often a direct result of the invasion of illegal gold miners into their reserved traditional land. These prospectors bring epidemic diseases (especially fatal malaria), environmental destruction, mercury poisoning, and violence. Ten percent of the Brazilian Yanomami have died from the invasion in just two years! In the U.S., with echoes in Brazil and Europe, Amanaka’a Amazon Network amplifies the Yanomami voice. Working directly with Davi, a Yanomami leader and U.N. Global 500 Award recipient, Amanaka’a has helped the Yanomami get their land demarcated, build and staff a health clinic, launch a self-education project, warn villages about the dangers brought by gold miners, and more.

The struggle continues for the Yanomami and other indigenous nations. You can make a real difference. Amanaka’a is a volunteer organization that needs all skills. We know how to make things happen. Just as important, Amanaka’a earned this space in Sandbox, a journal of play. With their Brazilian roots it’s no surprise that they know how to throw a wild party and have a good time.

Yanomamo: The Fierce People

Excerpts from: Napoleon A. Chagnon. Yanomamo: The Fierce People, CBS College Publishing, New York, NY, 1983.

There is a large tribe of Tropical Forest Indians on the border between Venezuela and Brazil. They number approximately 12,000 people and are distributed in some 125 widely scattered villages. They are gardeners and they have lived until very recent time in isolation from our kind of culture. The authorities in Venezuela and Brazil knew very little about their existence until anthropologists began going there. The remarkable thing about the tribe, known as the Yanomamo, is the fact that they have managed, due to their isolation in a remote corner of Amazonia, to retain their native pattern of warfare and political integrity without interference from the outside world. They have remained sovereign and in complete control of their own destiny up until a few years ago. The remotest, uncontacted villages are still living under those conditions.

The Yanomamo are thinly scattered over a vast and verdant Tropical Forest, living in small villages that are separated by many miles of unoccupied land. They have no writing, but they Transparent Inflatable Commercial Tent For Sale have a rich and complex language… Much of their daily life revolves around gardening, hunting, collecting wild foods, collecting firewood, fetching water, visiting with each other, gossiping, and making the few material possessions they own: baskets, hammocks, bows, arrows, and colorful pigments with which they paint their bodies. [See photo.] Life is relatively easy in the sense they can ‘earn a living’ with about three hours’ work per day… The villages can be as small as 40 to 50 people or as large as 300 people, but in all cases there are many more children and babies than there are adults. This is true of most primitive populations and of our own demographic past. Life expectancy is short.

The Yanomamo fall into the category of Tropical Forest Indians called ‘foot people’. They avoid large rivers and live in interfluvial plains of the major rivers. They have neighbors to the north, Carib-speaking Ye’kwana, who are true ‘river people’: they make elegant, large dugout canoes and travel extensively along the major waterways. For the Yanomamo, a large stream is an obstacle and can only be crossed in the dry season. Thus, they have traditionally avoided larger rivers and, because of this, contact with outsiders who usually come by river…

Two major seasons dominate their annual cycle: the wet season, which inundates the low-lying jungle making travel difficult, and the dry season–the time of visiting other villages to feast, trade, and politic with allies. The dry season is also the time when raiders can travel and strike silently at their unsuspecting enemies. The Yanomamo are still conducting inter-village warfare, a phenomenon that affect all aspects of their social organization, settlement pattern, and daily routines. It is not simply ‘ritualistic’ war: at least one-fourth of all adult males die violently.

Social life is organized around those same principles utilized by all tribesmen: kinship relationships, descent from ancestors, marriage exchanges between kinship/descent groups, and the transient charisma of distinguished headmen who attempt to keep order in the village and whose responsibility it is to determine the village’s relationships with those in other villages. Their positions are largely the result of kinship and marriage patterns–they come from the largest kinship groups within the village. They can, by their personal wit, wisdom, and charisma, become autocrats but most of them are largely “greaters” among equals. They, too, must clear gardens, plant crops, collect wild foods, and hunt. They are simultaneously peacemakers and valiant warriors. Peacemaking often requires the threat or actual use of force, and most headmen have an acquired reputation for being waiteri: fierce.